OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 50, Iss. 17 — Jun. 10, 2011
  • pp: 2708–2718

On-sky multiwavelength phasing of segmented telescopes with the Zernike phase contrast sensor

Arthur Vigan, Kjetil Dohlen, and Silvio Mazzanti  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 50, Issue 17, pp. 2708-2718 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (555 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Future extremely large telescopes will adopt segmented primary mirrors with several hundreds of segments. Cophasing of the segments together is essential to reach high wavefront quality. The phasing sensor must be able to maintain very high phasing accuracy during the observations, while being able to phase segments dephased by several micrometers. The Zernike phase contrast sensor has been demonstrated on-sky at the Very Large Telescope. We present the multiwavelength scheme that has been implemented to extend the capture range from ± λ / 2 on the wavefront to many micrometers, demonstrating that it is successful at phasing mirrors with piston errors up to ± 4.0 μm on the wavefront. We discuss the results at different levels and conclude with a phasing strategy for a future extremely large telescope.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.7350) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Wave-front sensing
(120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
(350.1260) Other areas of optics : Astronomical optics

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

Original Manuscript: October 19, 2010
Revised Manuscript: February 5, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: March 26, 2011
Published: June 8, 2011

Arthur Vigan, Kjetil Dohlen, and Silvio Mazzanti, "On-sky multiwavelength phasing of segmented telescopes with the Zernike phase contrast sensor," Appl. Opt. 50, 2708-2718 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008). [CrossRef]
  2. R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The 42 m European ELT: status,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701219 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. G. Chanan, M. Troy, F. Dekens, S. Michaels, J. Nelson, T. Mast, and D. Kirkman, “Phasing the mirror segments of the Keck telescopes: the broadband phasing algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 140–155 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. G. Chanan, C. Ohara, and M. Troy, “Phasing the mirror segments of the Keck telescopes II: the narrow-band phasing algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4706–4714 (2000). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397–403(2006). [CrossRef]
  6. P. Martinez, A. Boccaletti, M. Kasper, C. Cavarroc, N. Yaitskova, T. Fusco, and C. Vérinaud, “Comparison of coronagraphs for high-contrast imaging in the context of extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 492, 289–300 (2008). [CrossRef]
  7. N. Yaitskova, “Adaptive optics correction of segment aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 59–71 (2008). [CrossRef]
  8. F. Gonte, C. Araujo, R. Bourtembourg, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, R. Mazzoleni, L. Noethe, I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, E. Pinna, S. Chueca, and A. Vigan, “Active Phasing Experiment: preliminary results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120Z (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. R. Mazzoleni, F. Gonté, I. Surdej, C. Araujo, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, L. Noethe, and N. Yaitskova, “Design and performances of the Shack-Hartmann sensor within the Active Phasing Experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123A (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. E. Pinna, S. Esposito, A. Puglisi, F. Pieralli, R. M. Myers, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, and P. Stefanini, “Phase ambiguity solution with the Pyramid Phasing Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62672Y (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. L. Montoya-Martínez, M. Reyes, A. Schumacher, and E. Hernández, “DIPSI: the diffraction image phase sensing instrument for APE,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626732 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. K. Dohlen, “Phase masks in astronomy: from the Mach-Zehnder interferometer to coronagraphs,” EAS Publications Series 12, 33–44 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. C. Dupuy, F. Gonté, and C. Frank, “ASM: a scaled down active segmented mirror for the Active Phasing Experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123B (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, A. Courteville, S. Estival, and F. Gonté, “Optical phasing of a segmented mirror with sub-nanometer precision: experimental results of the APE internal metrology,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701212 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. L. Montoya, “Applications de l’interféromètre de Mach-Zehnder au cophasage des grands télescopes segmentés,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Provence, 2004).
  16. N. Yaitskova, K. Dohlen, P. Dierickx, and L. Montoya, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer for piston and tip-tilt sensing in segmented telescopes: theory and analytical treatment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1093–1105 (2005). [CrossRef]
  17. F. Zernike, “Diffraction theory of the knife-edge test and its improved form, the phase-contrast method,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 94, 377–384 (1934).
  18. K. Dohlen, M. Langlois, P. Lanzoni, S. Mazzanti, A. Vigan, L. Montoya, E. Hernandez, M. Reyes, I. Surdej, and N. Yaitskova, “ZEUS: a cophasing sensor based on the Zernike phase contrast method,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626734 (2006). [CrossRef]
  19. I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, and F. Gonte, “On-sky performance of the Zernike phase contrast sensor for the phasing of segmented telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4052–4062 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. Polhemus, “Two-wavelength interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2071–2074 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. G. Lofdahl and H. Eriksson, “Algorithm for resolving 2pi ambiguities in interferometric measurements by use of multiple wavelengths,” Opt. Eng. 40, 984–990 (2001). [CrossRef]
  22. K. Houairi and F. Cassaing, “Two-wavelength interferometry: extended range and accurate optical path difference analytical estimator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 2503–2511(2009). [CrossRef]
  23. S. Esposito, INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri(personal communication, 2006).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited