OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 50, Iss. 18 — Jun. 20, 2011
  • pp: 2964–2972

Ion-exchanged silica-on-silicon structured channel erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers

Zian He, Yigang Li, Yingfeng Li, Yanwu Zhang, Liying Liu, and Lei Xu  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 50, Issue 18, pp. 2964-2972 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.50.002964


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (945 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Silica-on-silicon structured channel erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers (EDWAs) were fabricated by a combination of the ion-exchange and sol-gel techniques. A small signal fiber-device-fiber net gain of 0.5 dB at 1531 nm was obtained for a 4 cm long EDWA with an optimized waveguide structure. The low noise figure of 4.0 dB was also achieved. Samples of different waveguide structures and rare-earth ion doping levels were fabricated to compare the EDWA gain properties. The results demonstrate that a better gain spectrum can be obtained by maximizing the distribution overlap of pump and signal mode intensity. The gain performance can be further improved by reducing upconversion efficiency of the EDWA. This work demonstrates that the ion-exchanged silica-on-silicon waveguide structure is an alternative approach for EDWA fabrication.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(160.5690) Materials : Rare-earth-doped materials
(160.6060) Materials : Solgel
(230.7380) Optical devices : Waveguides, channeled
(230.4480) Optical devices : Optical amplifiers

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 6, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: April 4, 2011
Published: June 14, 2011

Citation
Zian He, Yigang Li, Yingfeng Li, Yanwu Zhang, Liying Liu, and Lei Xu, "Ion-exchanged silica-on-silicon structured channel erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers," Appl. Opt. 50, 2964-2972 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-50-18-2964


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology(Academic, 1999).
  2. D. R. Zimmermann and L. H. Spiekman, “Amplifiers for the masses: EDFA, EDWA, and SOA amplets for metro and access applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 63–70 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369–381 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. Saint André, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J.-M. P. Delavaux, and E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Hűbner, S. Guldberg-Kjær, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er- and Yb-doped amplifiers and lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. R. N. Ghosh, J. Shmulovich, C. F. Kane, M. R. X. de Barros, G. Nykolak, A. J. Bruce, and P. C. Becker, “8-mW threshold Er3+-doped planar waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 518–520 (1996). [CrossRef]
  7. W. Huang and R. R. A. Syms, “Sol-gel silica-on-silicon buried-channel EDWAs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1339–1349 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. H. S. Tang, Y. G. Li, Y. W. Zhang, Y. F. Li, H. Li, X. Tu, X. Wu, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “A semi-weakly confined erbium-doped waveguide amplifier with double-layered buffer/cladding,” Opt. Express 16, 9844–9849 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. N. van den Hoven, R. J. I. M. Koper, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Net optical gain at 1.53 μm in Er-doped Al2O3 waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1886–1888 (1996). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, P. Poyhonen, G. Orcel, W. J. Wang, and J. Chrostowski, “Silver film ion exchanged singlemode waveguides in Er doped phosphate glass,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2167–2168 (1991). [CrossRef]
  11. D. Barbier, P. Bruno, C. Cassagnettes, M. Trouillon, R. L. Hyde, A. Kevorkian, and J. M. P. Delavaux, “Net gain of 27 dB with a 8.6 cm-long Er/Yb-doped glass-planar-amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol.  2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), paper TuH5.
  12. K. Liu and E. Y. B. Pun, “Modeling and experiments of packaged Er3+-Yb3+ co-doped glass waveguide amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 273, 413–420 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. F. Gardillou, L. Bastard, and J.-E. Broquin, “4.25 dB gain in a hybrid silicate/phosphate glasses optical amplifier made by wafer bonding and ion-exchange techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5176–5178 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. F. D. Patel, S. DiCarolis, P. Lum, S. Venkatesh, and J. N. Miller, “A compact high-performance optical waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2607–2609 (2004). [CrossRef]
  15. G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, G. Sorbello, E. Cianci, V. Foglietti, and P. Laporta, “Compact high gain erbium-ytterbium doped waveguide amplifier fabricated by Ag-Na ion exchange,” Electron. Lett. 42, 632–633 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. F. Ondráček, J. Jágerská, L. Salavcová, M. Míka, J. Špirková, and J. Čtyroký, “Er-Yb waveguide amplifiers in novel silicate glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 536–541 (2008). [CrossRef]
  17. G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 13, 5976–5982 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er-doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 1151–1166(2002). [CrossRef]
  19. J. Fick, A. Martucci, and M. Guglielmi, “Fabrication of erbium-doped channel waveguides by a combination of ion exchange and sol-gel techniques,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 19, 573–576 (2000). [CrossRef]
  20. Z. A. He, Y. G. Li, Y. F. Li, Y. W. Zhang, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Low-loss channel waveguides and Y-splitter formed by ion-exchange in silica-on-silicon,” Opt. Express 16, 3172–3177 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Y. G. Li, J. P. Huang, Y. F. Li, H. Li, Y. J. He, S. Y. Gu, G. H. Chen, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Optical properties and laser output of heavily Yb-doped fiber prepared by sol-gel method and DC-RTA technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3256–3260 (2008). [CrossRef]
  22. C. E. Chryssou, F. Di Pasquale, and C. W. Pitt, “Improved gain performance in Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped alumina (Al2O3) channel optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 345–349 (2001). [CrossRef]
  23. A. C. Marques, R. M. Almeida, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, “Reversible photoluminescence quenching in Er3+-doped silica-titania planar waveguides prepared by sol-gel,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 322, 272–277 (2003). [CrossRef]
  24. K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385–391 (1985). [CrossRef]
  25. G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marano, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, and P. Laporta, “Comparative study of Ag-Na thermal and field-assisted ion exchange on Er-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 425–435 (2001). [CrossRef]
  26. S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schűlzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, and D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 47, 110–120 (2006).
  27. Z. Q. Cao, Y. Jiang, Q. S. Shen, and Y. L. Chen, “Exact analytical method for planar waveguides with arbitrary index profile,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2209–2212 (1999). [CrossRef]
  28. F. Ondráček, L. Salavcová, M. Míka, F. Lahodný, R. Slavík, J. Špirková, and J. Čtyroký, “Fabrication and characterization of channel optical waveguides in Er/Yb-doped silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 30, 457–461 (2007). [CrossRef]
  29. N. Lou, G. L. Jin, H. R. Gu, and Q. Li, “Improved gain characteristics by forward–backward pumped configuration in erbium–ytterbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifier,” Opt. Eng. 46, 044601 (2007). [CrossRef]
  30. R. V. Ramaswamy and R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1000 (1988). [CrossRef]
  31. A. Laliotis, E. M. Yeatman, and S. J. Al-Bader, “Modelling signal and ASE evolution in erbium doped amplifiers by the method of lines,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1589–1600(2006). [CrossRef]
  32. Y. F. Bai, Y. X. Wang, K. Yang, X. R. Zhang, Y. L. Song, and C. H. Wang, “Enhanced up converted photoluminescence in Er3+ and Yb3+ codoped ZnO nanocrystals with and without Li+ ions,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5448–5452 (2008). [CrossRef]
  33. G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, H. J. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 12030–12036 (2008). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited