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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 50, Iss. 19 — Jul. 1, 2011
  • pp: 3346–3350

Validity of the thin mask approximation in extreme ultraviolet mask roughness simulations

Patrick P. Naulleau and Simi A. George  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 50, Issue 19, pp. 3346-3350 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.50.003346


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Abstract

In the case of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, modeling has shown that reflector phase roughness on the lithographic mask is a significant concern due to the image plane speckle it causes and the resulting line-edge roughness on imaged features. Modeling results have recently been used to determine the requirements for future production worthy masks yielding the extremely stringent specification of 50 pm rms roughness. Owing to the scale of the problem in terms of memory requirements, past modeling results have been based on the thin mask appro ximation in this application. EUV masks, however, are inherently three-dimensional (3D) in nature and thus the question arises as to the validity of the thin mask approximation. Here, we directly compare the image plane speckle calculation results using the fast two-dimensional thin mask model to rigorous finite-difference time-domain results and find the two methods to agree to within 10% in the computation of the speckle magnitude and 20% in the computation of the line-edge roughness limited depth of focus. For both types of computation, the two-dimensional method provides a conservative estimate. The 3D modeling is also used to show that layer-to-layer correlated roughness is indeed the roughness metric of most concern.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(030.5770) Coherence and statistical optics : Roughness
(030.6140) Coherence and statistical optics : Speckle
(110.5220) Imaging systems : Photolithography
(260.7200) Physical optics : Ultraviolet, extreme
(340.7480) X-ray optics : X-rays, soft x-rays, extreme ultraviolet (EUV)

ToC Category:
Coherence and Statistical Optics

History
Original Manuscript: February 1, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: April 12, 2011
Published: July 1, 2011

Citation
Patrick P. Naulleau and Simi A. George, "Validity of the thin mask approximation in extreme ultraviolet mask roughness simulations," Appl. Opt. 50, 3346-3350 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-50-19-3346


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References

  1. P. Naulleau and G. Gallatin, “The line-edge roughness transfer function and its application to determining mask effects in EUV resist characterization,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3390–3397 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. Beaudry and T. Milster, “Effects of mask roughness and condenser scattering in EUVL systems,” Proc. SPIE. 3676, 653–662 (1999). [CrossRef]
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  5. P. Naulleau, “Correlation method for the measure of mask-induced line-edge roughness in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3302–3307 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Naulleau and S. George, “Implications of image plane line-edge roughness requirements on extreme ultraviolet mask specifications,” Proc. SPIE 7379, 73790O(2009). [CrossRef]
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  8. Prolith is a registered trademark of KLA-Tencor Corporation, 160 Rio Robles, San Jose, California 95134.
  9. EM-Suite is a registered trademark of Panoramic Technologies, www.panoramictech.com.
  10. B. McClinton and P. Naulleau, “Mask-roughness-induced line-edge roughness: rule of thumb,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 9, 041208 (2010). [CrossRef]

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