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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 50, Iss. 20 — Jul. 10, 2011
  • pp: 3678–3684

Optical modeling of Fresnel zoneplate microscopes

Patrick P. Naulleau, Iacopo Mochi, and Kenneth A. Goldberg  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 50, Issue 20, pp. 3678-3684 (2011)

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Defect free masks remain one of the most significant challenges facing the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Progress on this front requires high-performance wavelength-specific metrology of EUV masks, including high-resolution and aerial-image microscopy performed near the 13.5 nm wavelength. Arguably the most cost-effective and rapid path to proliferating this capability is through the development of Fresnel zoneplate-based microscopes. Given the relative obscurity of such systems, however, modeling tools are not necessarily optimized to deal with them and their imaging properties are poorly understood. Here we present a modeling methodology to analyze zoneplate microscopes based on commercially available optical modeling software and use the technique to investigate the imaging performance of an off-axis EUV microscope design. The modeling predicts that superior performance can be achieved by tilting the zoneplate, making it perpendicular to the chief ray at the center of the field, while designing the zoneplate to explicitly work in that tilted plane. Although the examples presented here are in the realm of EUV mask inspection, the methods described and analysis results are broadly applicable to zoneplate microscopes in general, including full-field soft-x-ray microscopes rou tinely used in the synchrotron community.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(090.1970) Holography : Diffractive optics
(110.0180) Imaging systems : Microscopy
(110.7440) Imaging systems : X-ray imaging
(120.4820) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical systems
(260.7200) Physical optics : Ultraviolet, extreme
(050.1965) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive lenses

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

Original Manuscript: April 13, 2011
Revised Manuscript: May 30, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: May 31, 2011
Published: July 8, 2011

Virtual Issues
Vol. 6, Iss. 8 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Patrick P. Naulleau, Iacopo Mochi, and Kenneth A. Goldberg, "Optical modeling of Fresnel zoneplate microscopes," Appl. Opt. 50, 3678-3684 (2011)

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  1. K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, I. Mochi, E. H. Anderson, S. B. Rekawa, C. D. Kemp, R. F. Gunion, H.-S. Han, and S. Huh, “Actinic extreme ultraviolet mask inspection beyond 0.25 numerical aperture,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 2220–4(2008). [CrossRef]
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  11. ZEMAX optical system design software is developed and distributed by ZEMAX Development Corporation, 3001 112th Avenue NE, Suite 202, Bellevue, Wash. 98004-8017, USA.

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