OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 50, Iss. 21 — Jul. 20, 2011
  • pp: 4063–4067

Replication of micro-optical elements with continuous relief by ultraviolet embossing with thiol-ene-based resist

Peng Jin, Nan Liu, Jie Lin, Jiubin Tan, and Philip D. Prewett  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 50, Issue 21, pp. 4063-4067 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (656 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We propose in this paper to use the delayed gel point character of thiol-ene-based resist to reduce the influence of polymerization shrinkage during the replication of micro-optical elements with continuous relief by UV embossing. Experiment results indicate that this resist can be used to bring down the fabrication error to less than 2% in the vertical direction at a proper thickness of the residual resist, which is far less than that of traditional acrylate-based resist. This resist can also be used to transfer continuous relief into a fused silica substrate through reactive ion etching because of its good etching resistance.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(050.6875) Diffraction and gratings : Three-dimensional fabrication

ToC Category:
Diffraction and Gratings

Original Manuscript: April 13, 2011
Revised Manuscript: June 7, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: June 7, 2011
Published: July 15, 2011

Peng Jin, Nan Liu, Jie Lin, Jiubin Tan, and Philip D. Prewett, "Replication of micro-optical elements with continuous relief by ultraviolet embossing with thiol-ene-based resist," Appl. Opt. 50, 4063-4067 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. E. A. Costner, M. W. Lin, W. L. Jen, and C. G. Willson, “Nanoimprint lithography materials development for semiconductor device fabrication,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Res. 39, 155–180 (2009). [CrossRef]
  2. C. Pina-Hernandez, L. J. Guo, and P. F. Fu, “High-resolution functional epoxysilsesquioxane-based patterning layers for large-area nanoimprinting,” ACS Nano 4, 4776–4784 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Colburn, I. Suez, B. J. Choi, M. Meissl, T. Bailey, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. G. Ekerdt, and C. G. Willson, “Characterization and modeling of volumetric and mechanical properties for step and flash imprint lithography photopolymers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2685–2689 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Rossi, R. E. Kunz, and H. P. Herzig, “Refractive and diffractive properties of planar micro-optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5996–6007 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. K. Kim, M. D. Stewart, K. Wu, F. L. Palmieri, M. D. Dickey, J. G. Ekerdt, and C. G. Willson, “Vinyl ether formulations for step and flash imprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2967–2971 (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. D. I. Shin, S. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, S. Lee, Y. Jin, J. Noh, H. Oh, K. Lee, D. H. Shin, and S. H. Song, “Fabrication of phone-camera module using wafer-scale UV embossing process,” Proc. SPIE 6068, 60680Q (2006). [CrossRef]
  7. R. L. Burns, S. C. Johnson, G. M. Schmid, E. K. Kim, M. D. Dickey, J. Meiring, S. D. Burns, N. A. Stacey, C. G. Willson, D. Convey, Y. Wei, P. Fejes, K. Gehoski, D. Mancini, K. Nordquist, W. J. Dauksher, and D. J. Resnick, “Mesoscale modeling for SFIL simulating polymerization kinetics and densification,” Proc. SPIE 5374, 348–360 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. C. E. Hoyle and C. N. Bowman, “Thiol-ene click chemistry,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49, 1540–1573 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. N. Bowman and C. J. Kloxin, “Toward an enhanced understanding and implementation of photopolymerization reactions,” AIChE J. 54, 2775–2795 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. E. C. Hagberg, M. Malkoch, Y. B. Ling, C. J. Hawker, and K. R. Carter, “Effects of modulus and surface chemistry of thiol-ene photopolymers in nanoimprinting,” Nano Lett. 7, 233–237 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. V. S. Khire, Y. Yi, N. A. Clark, and C. N. Bowman, “Formation and surface modification of nanopatterned thiol-ene substrates using step and flash imprint lithography,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3308–3313 (2008). [CrossRef]
  12. S. Landis, N. Chaix, C. Gourgon, and T. Leveder, “Quantitative characterizations of a nanopatterned bonded wafer: force determination for nanoimprint lithography stamp removal,” Nanotechnology 19, 125305 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Jin, N. Liu, T. T. Liu, and J. B. Tan, “Replication of micro optical element with continuous relief profile in fused silica using UV-embossing and reactive ion etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 1086–1090 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. K. Wu, T. C. Bailey, C. G. Willson, and J. G. Ekerdt, “Surface hydration and its effect on fluorinated SAM formation on SiO2 surfaces,” Langmuir 21, 11795–11801 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Q. D. Wang, Y. G. Duan, B. H. Lu, Y. C. Ding, and Y. P. Tang, “Imprint template fabrication based on glass wet etching using a soft etching mask,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 564–570 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. X. Tan, B. Y. Gu, G. Z. Yang, and B. Z. Dong, “Diffractive phase elements for beam shaping—a new design method,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1314–1320 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. Lu, J. A. Carioscia, J. W. Stansbury, and C. N. Bowman, “Investigations of step-growth thiol-ene polymerizations for novel dental restoratives,” Dent. Mater. 21, 1129–1136(2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W. H. Stockmayer and H. Jacobson, “Gel formation in vinyl-divinyl copolymers,” J. Chem. Phys. 11, 393–393 (1943). [CrossRef]
  19. P. J. Flory, “Molecular size distribution in three dimensional polymers. I. gelation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 63, 3083–3090(1941). [CrossRef]
  20. C. Walling, “Gel formation in addition polymerization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 67, 441–447 (1945). [CrossRef]
  21. J. A. Carioscia, H. Lu, J. W. Stanbury, and C. N. Bowman, “Thiol-ene oligomers as dental restorative materials,” Dent. Mater. 21, 1137–1143 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. H. Lu, J. W. Stansbury, and C. N. Bowman, “Towards the elucidation of shrinkage stress development and relaxation in dental composites,” Dent. Mater. 20, 979–986 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited