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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 50, Iss. 23 — Aug. 10, 2011
  • pp: 4664–4670

Fabrication of three-dimensional polymer quadratic nonlinear grating structures by layer-by-layer direct laser writing technique

Danh Bich Do, Jian Hung Lin, Ngoc Diep Lai, Hung-Chih Kan, and Chia Chen Hsu  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 50, Issue 23, pp. 4664-4670 (2011)

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We demonstrate the fabrication of a three-dimensional (3D) polymer quadratic nonlinear ( χ ( 2 ) ) grating structure. By performing layer-by-layer direct laser writing (DLW) and spin-coating approaches, desired photobleached grating patterns were embedded in the guest–host dispersed-red-1/poly(methylmethacrylate) (DR1/PMMA) active layers of an active-passive alternative multilayer structure through photobleaching of DR1 molecules. Polyvinyl-alcohol and SU8 thin films were deposited between DR1/PMMA layers serving as a passive layer to separate DR1/PMMA active layers. After applying the corona electric field poling to the multilayer structure, nonbleached DR1 molecules in the active layers formed polar distribution, and a 3D χ ( 2 ) grating structure was obtained. The χ ( 2 ) grating structures at different DR1/PMMA nonlinear layers were mapped by laser scanning second harmonic (SH) microscopy, and no cross talk was observed between SH images obtained from neighboring nonlinear layers. The layer- by-layer DLW technique is favorable to fabricating hierarchical 3D polymer nonlinear structures for optoelectronic applications with flexible structural design.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(190.2620) Nonlinear optics : Harmonic generation and mixing
(190.4710) Nonlinear optics : Optical nonlinearities in organic materials
(230.4320) Optical devices : Nonlinear optical devices

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

Original Manuscript: April 14, 2011
Revised Manuscript: June 24, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: June 28, 2011
Published: August 8, 2011

Danh Bich Do, Jian Hung Lin, Ngoc Diep Lai, Hung-Chih Kan, and Chia Chen Hsu, "Fabrication of three-dimensional polymer quadratic nonlinear grating structures by layer-by-layer direct laser writing technique," Appl. Opt. 50, 4664-4670 (2011)

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