OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 50, Iss. 26 — Sep. 10, 2011
  • pp: 5158–5162

Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging for quantitative velocity imaging in air

James B. Michael, Matthew R. Edwards, Arthur Dogariu, and Richard B. Miles  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 50, Issue 26, pp. 5158-5162 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (700 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Time-accurate velocity measurements in unseeded air are made by tagging nitrogen with a femtosecond-duration laser pulse and monitoring the displacement of the molecules with a time-delayed, fast-gated camera. Centimeter-long lines are written through the focal region of a 1 mJ , 810 nm laser and are produced by nonlinear excitation and dissociation of nitrogen. Negligible heating is associated with this interaction. The emission arises from recombining nitrogen atoms and lasts for tens of microseconds in natural air. It falls into the 560 to 660 nm spectral region and consists of multiple spectral lines associated with first positive nitrogen transitions. The feasibility of this concept is demonstrated with lines written across a free jet, yielding instantaneous and averaged velocity profiles. The use of high-intensity femtosecond pulses for flow tagging allows the accurate determination of velocity profiles with a single laser system and camera.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
(120.7250) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Velocimetry
(280.2490) Remote sensing and sensors : Flow diagnostics
(280.7060) Remote sensing and sensors : Turbulence
(280.7250) Remote sensing and sensors : Velocimetry

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

Original Manuscript: April 28, 2011
Revised Manuscript: July 8, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: July 20, 2011
Published: September 9, 2011

James B. Michael, Matthew R. Edwards, Arthur Dogariu, and Richard B. Miles, "Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging for quantitative velocity imaging in air," Appl. Opt. 50, 5158-5162 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. Miles, C. Cohen, P. Howard, S. Huang, E. Markovitz, and G. Russell, “Velocity measurements by vibrational tagging and fluorescent probing of oxygen,” Opt. Lett. 12, 861–863 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. B. Miles, J. J. Connors, E. C. Markovitz, P. J. Howard, and G. J. Roth, “Instantaneous profiles and turbulence statistics of supersonic free shear layers by Raman excitation plus laser-induced electronic fluorescence (RELIEF),” Exp. Fluids 8, 17–24 (1989). [CrossRef]
  3. R. B. Miles, J. Grinstead, R. H. Kohl, and G. Diskin, “The RELIEF flow tagging technique and its application in engine testing facilities and in helium-air mixing studies,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1272–1281 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. N. Dam, R. J. H. Klein-Douwel, N. M. Sijtsema, and J. J. ter Meulen, “Nitric oxide flow tagging in unseeded air,” Opt. Lett. 26, 36–38 (2001). [CrossRef]
  5. R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, R. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, “Simultaneous velocity and temperature measurements in gaseous flow fields using the VENOM technique,” Opt. Lett. 36, 196–198 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. W. Pitz, T. M. Brown, S. P. Nandula, P. A. Skaggs, P. A. DeBarber, M. S. Brown, and J. Segall, “Unseeded velocity measurement by ozone tagging velocimetry,” Opt. Lett. 21, 755–757 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. W. Pitz, J. A. Wehrmeyer, L. A. Ribarov, D. A. Oguss, F. B. Batliwala, P. A. DeBarber, S. Deusch, and P. E. Dimotakis, “Unseeded molecular flow tagging in cold and hot flows using ozone and hydroxyl tagging velocimetry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1259–1271 (2000). [CrossRef]
  8. B. Hiller, R. A. Booman, C. Hassa, and R. K. Hanson, “Velocity visualization in gas flows using laser-induced phosphorescence of biacetyl,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1964–1967 (1984). [CrossRef]
  9. L. R. Boedeker, “Velocity measurement by H2O photolysis and laser-induced fluorescence of OH,” Opt. Lett. 14, 473–475(1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. A. Wehrmeyer, L. A. Ribarov, D. A. Oguss, and R. W. Pitz, “Flame flow tagging velocimetry with 193 nmH2O photodissociation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6912–6917 (1999). [CrossRef]
  11. W. R. Lempert, P. Ronney, K. Magee, R. Gee, and R. P. Haughland, “Flow tagging velocimetry in incompressible flow using photo-activated nonintrusive tracking of molecular motion (PHANTOMM),” Exp. Fluids 18, 249–257 (1995). [CrossRef]
  12. M. M. Koochesfahani, R. K. Cohn, C. P. Gendrich, and D. G. Nocera, “Molecular tagging diagnostics for the study of kinematics and mixing in liquid phase flows,” in Developments in Laser Techniques and Fluid Mechanics, R.Adrian, D.F. G.Durao, F.Durst, M.V.Heitor, M.Maeda, and J.H.Whitelaw, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1997), pp. 125–145.
  13. A. Noullez, G. Wallace, W. Lempert, R. B. Miles, and U. Frisch, “Transverse velocity increments in turbulent flow using the RELIEF technique,” J. Fluid Mech. 339, 287–307 (1997). [CrossRef]
  14. R. B. Miles, J. Connors, E. Markovitz, P. Howard, and G. Roth, “Instantaneous supersonic velocity profiles in an underexpanded jet by oxygen flow tagging,” Phys. Fluids A 1, 389–393(1989). [CrossRef]
  15. J. Amorim, “Lewis–Rayleigh and pink afterglow,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 33, 368–369 (2005). [CrossRef]
  16. E. Es-sebbar, Y. Benilan, A. Jolly, and M. C. Gazeau, “Characterization of an N2 flowing microwave post-discharge by OES spectroscopy and determination of absolute ground-state nitrogen atom densities by TALIF,” J. Phys. D 42, 135206 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. J. Levaton, J. Amorim, A. R. Souza, D. Franco, and A. Ricard, “Kinetics of atoms, metastable, radiative and ionic species in the nitrogen pink afterglow,” J. Phys. D 35, 689–699 (2002). [CrossRef]
  18. C. R. Stanley, “A new method for the production of active nitrogen and its application to the study of collision effects in the nitrogen molecular spectrum,” Proc. Phys. Soc. A 67, 821–827 (1954). [CrossRef]
  19. J. F. Noxon, “Active nitrogen at high pressure,” J. Chem. Phys. 36, 926–940 (1962). [CrossRef]
  20. K. D. Bayes and G. B. Kistiakowsky, “On the mechanism of the Lewis–Rayleigh nitrogen afterglow,” J. Chem. Phys. 32, 992–1000 (1960). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited