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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 50, Iss. 27 — Sep. 20, 2011
  • pp: 5271–5278

Analysis of the colorimetric properties of goniochromatic colors using the MacAdam limits under different light sources

Esther Perales, Elísabet Chorro, Werner R. Cramer, and Francisco M. Martínez-Verdú  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 50, Issue 27, pp. 5271-5278 (2011)

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Technological innovation in all areas has led to the appearance in recent years of new metallic and pearlescent materials, yet no exhaustive studies have been conducted to assess their colorimetric capabilities. The chromatic variability of these special-effect pigments may largely be due to the three-dimensional effect of their curved shapes and orientations when they are directionally or diffusely illuminated. Our study examines goniochromatic colors using the optimal colors (MacAdam limits) associated with normal colors (photometric scale of relative spectral reflectance from 0 to 1) under certain conventional illuminants and other light sources. From a database of 91 metallic and interference samples and using a multi-gonio-spectrophotometer, we analyzed samples with lightness values of more than 100 and others with lightness values of less than 100, but with higher chromaticities than optimal colors, which places them beyond the MacAdam limits. Our study thus demonstrates the existence of chromatic perceptions beyond the normal solid color associated with these materials and independent of the light source. The challenge for future research, therefore, is to replicate and render these color appearances in current and future color reproduction technologies for computer graphics.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.1190) Materials : Anisotropic optical materials
(300.6550) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, visible
(330.1710) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color, measurement
(330.1720) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color vision

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: November 11, 2010
Revised Manuscript: March 23, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: May 28, 2011
Published: September 15, 2011

Virtual Issues
Vol. 6, Iss. 10 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Esther Perales, Elísabet Chorro, Werner R. Cramer, and Francisco M. Martínez-Verdú, "Analysis of the colorimetric properties of goniochromatic colors using the MacAdam limits under different light sources," Appl. Opt. 50, 5271-5278 (2011)

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