OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 50, Iss. 28 — Oct. 1, 2011
  • pp: F112–F120

Color changes in objects in natural scenes as a function of observation distance and weather conditions

Javier Romero, Raúl Luzón-González, Juan L. Nieves, and Javier Hernández-Andrés  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 50, Issue 28, pp. F112-F120 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.50.00F112


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (432 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We have analyzed the changes in the color of objects in natural scenes due to atmospheric scattering according to changes in the distance of observation. Hook-shaped curves were found in the chromaticity diagram when the object moved from zero distance to long distances, where the object chromaticity coordinates approached the color coordinates of the horizon. This trend is the result of the combined effect of attenuation in the direct light arriving to the observer from the object and the airlight added during its trajectory. Atmospheric scattering leads to a fall in the object’s visibility, which is measurable as a difference in color between the object and the background (taken here to be the horizon). Focusing on color difference instead of luminance difference could produce different visibility values depending on the color tolerance used. We assessed the cone-excitation ratio constancy for several objects at different distances. Affine relationships were obtained when an object’s cone excitations were represented both at zero distance and increasing distances. These results could help to explain color constancy in natural scenes for objects at different distances, a phenomenon that has been pointed out by different authors.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1290) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric optics
(010.1310) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric scattering
(010.7295) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Visibility and imaging
(010.1690) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Color

History
Original Manuscript: May 18, 2011
Revised Manuscript: September 14, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: September 14, 2011
Published: September 26, 2011

Virtual Issues
Vol. 6, Iss. 11 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Javier Romero, Raúl Luzón-González, Juan L. Nieves, and Javier Hernández-Andrés, "Color changes in objects in natural scenes as a function of observation distance and weather conditions," Appl. Opt. 50, F112-F120 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-50-28-F112


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. S. M. C. Nascimento, F. P. Ferreira, and D. H. Foster, “Statistics of spatial cone-excitation ratios in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1484–1490 (2002). [CrossRef]
  2. C. D. Hendley and S. Hecht, “The colors of natural objects and terrains, and their relation to visual color deficiency,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 870–873 (1949). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. J. Burton and I. R. Moorhead, “Color and spatial structure in natural scenes,” Appl. Opt. 26, 157–170 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, “Adaptation and the color statistics of natural images,” Vis. Res. 37, 3283–3298 (1997). [CrossRef]
  5. E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere, Scattering by Molecules and Particles (Wiley-Interscience, 1976).
  6. D. K. Lynch, “Step brightness changes of distant mountain ridges and their perception,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3508–3513 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. S. Kopeika, I. Dror, and D. Sadot, “Causes of atmospheric blur: comment on Atmospheric scattering effect on spatial resolution of imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 3097–3106 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. R. C. Henry, S. Mahadey, S. Urquijo, and D. Chitwood, “Color perception through atmospheric haze,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 831–835 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. D. H. Foster, “Color constancy,” Vis. Res. 51, 674–700 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Color in the Open Air (Dover, 1954).
  11. J. Romero, D. Partal, J. L. Nieves, and J. Hernández-Andrés, “Sensor-response constancy under changes in natural and artificial illuminants,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 284–292 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. D. H. Foster and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Relational colour constancy from invariant cone-excitation ratios,” in Proc. R. Soc. B 257, 115–121 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Q. Zaidi, B. Spehar, and J. DeBonet, “Color constancy in variegated scenes: role of low-level mechanisms in discounting illumination changes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2608–2621(1997). [CrossRef]
  14. Q. Zaidi, “Identification of illuminant and object colors: heuristic-based algorithms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1767–1776 (1998). [CrossRef]
  15. S. G. Narasimhan and S. K. Nayar, “Chromatic framework for vision in bad weather,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2000, Vol. 1 (IEEE, 2000), pp. 598–605. [CrossRef]
  16. S. K. Nayar and S. G. Narasimhan, “Vision in bad weather,” in Proceedings of IEEE Seventh International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2002), pp. 820–827.
  17. J. P. Oakley and B. L. Satherley, “Improving image quality in poor visibility conditions using a physical model for contrast degradation,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 167–179 (1998). [CrossRef]
  18. K. K. Tan and J. P. Oakley, “Physics based approach to color image enhancement in poor visibility conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2460–2467 (2001). [CrossRef]
  19. S. G. Narasimhan and S. K. Nayar, “Vision and the atmosphere,” in ACM Siggraph Asia 2008 Courses (ACM, 2008), pp. 1–22. [CrossRef]
  20. S. G. Narasimhan and S. K. Nayar, “Contrast restoration of weather degraded images,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25, 713–724 (2003). [CrossRef]
  21. N. Ohta and A. R. Robertson, Colorimetry. Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, 2005). [CrossRef]
  22. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science, Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, 1982).
  23. ColorChecker DC. Chart from Gretag Macbeth Ltd. (“GMB”), 2004.
  24. F. G. Smith, T. A. King, and D. Wilkins, Optics and Photonics (Wiley, 2007).
  25. P. P. Banerjee and T. Poon, Principles of Applied Optics(McGraw-Hill, 1991).
  26. Centro Andaluz del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain, http://atmosfera.ugr.es.
  27. M. Iqbal, An Introduction to Solar Radiation (Academic, 1983).
  28. J. Lenoble, Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (A. Deepak Publishing, 1993).
  29. H. Horvath, “Atmospheric visibility,” Atmos. Environ. 15, 1785–1796 (1981). [CrossRef]
  30. H. Horvath, “On the applicability of the Koschmider visibility formula,” Atmos. Environ. 5, 177–184 (1971). [CrossRef]
  31. M. J. Vrhel, R. Gershon, and L. S. Iwan, “Measurement and analysis of object reflectance spectra,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 4–9 (1994).
  32. M. S. Drew and G. D. Finlayson, “Multispectral processing without spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1181–1193 (2003). [CrossRef]
  33. P. DeMarco, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Full-spectrum cone sensitivity functions for X chromosome linked anomalous trichromats,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1465–1476 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. J. Hagedorn and M. D’Zmura, “Color appearance of surfaces viewed through fog,” Perception 29, 1169–1184 (2000). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited