OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 50, Iss. 29 — Oct. 10, 2011
  • pp: 5639–5646

Methodology for measuring current distribution effects in electrochromic smart windows

Johnny Degerman Engfeldt, Peter Georen, Carina Lagergren, and Göran Lindbergh  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 50, Issue 29, pp. 5639-5646 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (595 KB) Open Access

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Electrochromic (EC) devices for use as smart windows have a large energy-saving potential when used in the construction and transport industries. When upscaling EC devices to window size, a well-known challenge is to design the EC device with a rapid and uniform switching between colored (charged) and bleached (discharged) states. A well-defined current distribution model, validated with experimental data, is a suitable tool for optimizing the electrical system design for rapid and uniform switching. This paper introduces a methodology, based on camera vision, for experimentally validating EC current distribution models. The key is the methodology’s capability to both measure and simulate current distribution effects as transmittance distribution. This paper also includes simple models for coloring (charging) and bleaching (discharging), taking into account secondary current distribution with charge transfer resistance and ohmic effects. Some window-size model predictions are included to show the potential for using a validated EC current distribution model as a design tool.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
(230.2090) Optical devices : Electro-optical devices

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

Original Manuscript: April 27, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: August 21, 2011
Published: October 3, 2011

Johnny Degerman Engfeldt, Peter Georen, Carina Lagergren, and Göran Lindbergh, "Methodology for measuring current distribution effects in electrochromic smart windows," Appl. Opt. 50, 5639-5646 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. C. G. Granqvist, Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials (Elsevier, 1995).
  2. G. A. Niklasson and C. G. Granqvist, “Electrochromics for smart windows: thin films of tungsten oxide and nickel oxide, and devices based on these,” J. Mater. Chem. 17, 127–156(2007). [CrossRef]
  3. C. M. Lampert, “Large-area smart glass and integrated photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 76, 489–499(2003). [CrossRef]
  4. E. S. Lee, S. E. Selkowitz, R. D. Clear, D. L. DiBartolomeo, J. H. Klems, L. L. Fernandes, G. J. Ward, V. Inkarojrit, and M. Yazdanian, “Advancement of electrochromic windows,” Publication number CEC-500-2006-052 (California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research, 2006).
  5. ChromoGenics AB, EControl-Glas GmbH & Co., Gentex, Sage Electrochromic, Inc., Saint-Gobain, etc.
  6. J. M. Bell, J. P. Matthews, and I. L. Skryabin, “Modelling switching of electrochromic devices—a route to successful large area device design,” Solid State Ion. 152–153, 853–860(2002). [CrossRef]
  7. I. L. Skryabin, G. Evans, D. Frost, G. Vogelman, and J. M. Bell, “Testing and control issues in large area electrochromic films and devices,” Electrochim. Acta 44, 3203–3209 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Wang, J. M. Bell, and I. L. Skryabin, “The kinetic behaviour of ion transport in WO3 based films produced by sputter and sol-gel deposition: Part I. The simulation model,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 59, 167–183 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Motupally, C. C. Streinz, and J. W. Weidner, “Proton diffusion in nickel hydroxide—prediction of active material utilization,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 145, 29–34 (1998). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited