OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 50, Iss. 3 — Jan. 20, 2011
  • pp: 335–346

Neutral points in an atmosphere–ocean system. 2: Downwelling light field

James T. Adams and Deric J. Gray  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 50, Issue 3, pp. 335-346 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.50.000335


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1442 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We use a Monte Carlo code that calculates the complete Stokes vector to predict the degree of polarization in the complete observable solid angle at any level in an atmosphere–ocean system. Using the Stokes vector components, we can find the positions of neutral points in a simulated plane-parallel atmosphere–ocean system for various conditions. We examine the locations and behavior of these neutral points for an observer placed directly above and beneath the air–water boundary and show how their positions are influenced by different atmospheric and oceanic conditions.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1310) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric scattering
(010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
(290.1310) Scattering : Atmospheric scattering
(290.4210) Scattering : Multiple scattering
(290.5855) Scattering : Scattering, polarization
(010.5620) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Radiative transfer

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

History
Original Manuscript: October 7, 2010
Revised Manuscript: November 26, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: November 29, 2010
Published: January 17, 2011

Virtual Issues
Vol. 6, Iss. 2 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
James T. Adams and Deric J. Gray, "Neutral points in an atmosphere–ocean system. 2: Downwelling light field," Appl. Opt. 50, 335-346 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-50-3-335


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, P. V. Hobbs, G. F. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. N. Holben, and E. Russell, “Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photopolarimetric observations over the ocean during the CLAMS experiment,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093–1117 (2005). [CrossRef]
  2. M. Chami, “Importance of the polarization in the retrieval of oceanic constituents from the remote sensing reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, C05026 (2007). [CrossRef]
  3. K. L. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (Deepak, 1988).
  4. G. Horváth, B. Bernáth, B. Suhai, A. Barta, and R. Wehner, “First observation of the fourth neutral point polarization point in the atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2085–2099(2002). [CrossRef]
  5. M. J. L. Soret, “Influence des surfaces d’eau sur la polarisation atmospherique et observation de deux points neutres a droite et a guache de Soleil,” Compt. Rend. 107, 867–870 (1888).
  6. R. S. Fraser, “Atmospheric neutral points over water,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1029–1031 (1968). [CrossRef]
  7. J. T. Adams and G. W. Kattawar, “Neutral points in an atmosphere–ocean system. 1: Upwelling light field,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1976–1986 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. H. Waterman, “Polarization patterns in submarine illumination,” Science 120, 927–932 (1954). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. H. Waterman and W. E. Westell, “Quantitative effect of the sun’s position on submarine light polarization,” J. Mar. Res. 15, 149–169 (1956).
  10. A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, “Elliptical polarization of submarine illumination,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 255–282 (1958).
  11. A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, “Factors, mainly depth and wavelength, affecting the degree of underwater light polarization,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 283–307 (1958).
  12. B. Lundgren, “On the polarization of daylight in the sea,” Rep. 17 (Department of Physical Oceanography, University of Copenhagen, 1971), pp. 1–34.
  13. K. J. Voss and Y. Liu, “Polarized radiance distribution measurements of skylight. I. System description and characterization,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6083–6094 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Liu and K. J. Voss, “Polarized radiance distribution measurement of skylight. II. Experiment and data,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8753–8764 (1997). [CrossRef]
  15. R. L. Lee Jr., “Digital imaging of clear-sky polarization,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1465–1476 (1998). [CrossRef]
  16. J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, “Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 457, 1385–1399 (2001). [CrossRef]
  17. S. Sabbah and N. Shashar, “Experimental and theoretical study of skylight polarization transmitted through Snell’s window of a flat water surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1978–1988 (2006). [CrossRef]
  18. S. Sabbah and N. Shashar, “Light polarization under water near sunrise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 2049–2056. [CrossRef]
  19. N. J. Pust and J. A. Shaw, “Digital all-sky polarization imaging of partly cloudy skies,” Appl. Opt. 47, H190–H198 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Kreuter, M. Zangerl, M. Schwarzmann, and M. Blumthaler, “All-sky imaging: a simple, versatile system for atmospheric research,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1091–1097 (2009). [CrossRef]
  21. A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, A. Gilerson, M. S. Twardowski, D. J. Gray, R. A. Arnone, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, “Polarized light in coastal waters: hyperspectral and multiangular analysis,” Opt. Express 17, 5666–5683 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. J. Voss and N. Souaidia, “POLRADS: polarization radiance distribution measurement system,” Opt. Express 18, 19672–19680 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. Cox and W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).
  24. A preliminary cloudless standard atmosphere for radiation computation (International Association for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, Boulder, Colo., 1984).
  25. R. C. Smith and K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (100–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184(1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Tanaka and T. Nakajima, “Effects of oceanic turbidity and index of refraction of hydrosols on the flux of solar radiation in the atmosphere–ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 93–111 (1977). [CrossRef]
  27. T. J. Petzold, Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Ocean Waters (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1972).
  28. The average particulate phase function can be found in Chap. 3, C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).
  29. A. T. Young, “Revised depolarization correction for atmospheric extinction,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3427–3428 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of OceanographyN.G.Jerlov and E.S.Nielsen, eds. (Academic, 1974), pp. 1–24.
  31. Our earlier paper cites a depolarization value for seawater of ρl=0.047, which is the value for linearly polarized incident light. This is related to the natural light depolarization value, ρu, given in this paper by ρu=2ρl/(1+ρl). See, for example, p. 49 of S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, 1960).
  32. J. T. Adams, E. Aas, N. K. Hojerslev, and B. Lundgren, “Comparison of radiance and polarization values observed in the Mediterranean Sea and simulated in a Monte Carlo model,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2724–2733 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, and S. J. Hitzfelder, “Multiple scattered radiation emerging from Rayleigh and continental haze layers. 1: Radiance, polarization, and neutral points,” Appl. Opt. 15, 632–647 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. J. D. Dave and P. M. Furukawa, “Intensity and polarization of the radiation emerging from an optically thick Rayleigh atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 394–400 (1966). [CrossRef]
  35. Y. You, P. Zhai, G. W. Kattawar, and P. Yang, “Polarized radiance fields under a dynamic ocean surface: a three-dimensional radiative transfer solution,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3019–3029 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. S. Sabbah and N. Sashar, “Underwater light polarization and radiance fluctuations induced by surface waves,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4726–4739 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited