OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 50, Iss. 4 — Feb. 1, 2011
  • pp: A20–A28

MHz-rate nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel

Naibo Jiang, Matthew Webster, Walter R. Lempert, Joseph D. Miller, Terrence R. Meyer, Christopher B. Ivey, and Paul M. Danehy  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 50, Issue 4, pp. A20-A28 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1208 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence (NO PLIF) imaging at repetition rates as high as 1 MHz is demonstrated in the NASA Langley 31 in. Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel. Approximately 200 time- correlated image sequences of between 10 and 20 individual frames were obtained over eight days of wind tunnel testing spanning two entries in March and September of 2009. The image sequences presented were obtained from the boundary layer of a 20 ° flat plate model, in which transition was induced using a variety of different shaped protuberances, including a cylinder and a triangle. The high-speed image sequences captured a variety of laminar and transitional flow phenomena, ranging from mostly laminar flow, typically at a lower Reynolds number and/or in the near wall region of the model, to highly transitional flow in which the temporal evolution and progression of characteristic streak instabilities and/or corkscrew-shaped vortices could be clearly identified.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(190.4970) Nonlinear optics : Parametric oscillators and amplifiers
(280.1740) Remote sensing and sensors : Combustion diagnostics
(280.2490) Remote sensing and sensors : Flow diagnostics

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: July 20, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: September 17, 2010
Published: October 14, 2010

Naibo Jiang, Matthew Webster, Walter R. Lempert, Joseph D. Miller, Terrence R. Meyer, Christopher B. Ivey, and Paul M. Danehy, "MHz-rate nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel," Appl. Opt. 50, A20-A28 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. J. Dyer and D. R. Crosley, “Two-dimensional imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence in a flame,” Opt. Lett. 7, 382–384(1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Kychakoff, K. Knapp, R. D. Howe, and R. K. Hanson, “Flow visualization in combustion gases using nitric oxide fluorescence,” AIAA J. 22, 153–154 (1984). [CrossRef]
  3. J. D. Smith and V. Sick, “Crank-angle resolved imaging of biacetyl laser-induced fluorescence in an optical internal combustion engine,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 579–584 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, and M. Alden, “High repletion rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a non-premixed flame,” Appl. Phys. B. 68, 757–760 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Kittler and A. Dreizler, “Cinematographic imaging of hydroxyl radicals in turbulent flames by planar laser-induced fluorescence up to 5kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 163–166 (2007). [CrossRef]
  6. P. Wu, W. R. Lempert, and R. B. Miles, “MHz pulse-burst laser system and visualization of shock-wave boundary-layer interaction in a Mach 2.5 wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 38, 672–679 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. B. Thurow, N. Jiang, M. Samimy, and W. Lempert, “Narrow-linewidth megahertz-rate pulse-burst laser for high-speed flow diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5064–5073 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, G. L. Switzer, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, “A narrow-linewidth MHz-repetition-rate optical parametric oscillator for high-speed flow and combustion diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 47, 64–71 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. N. Jiang, M. Webster, and W. R. Lempert, “Advances in generation of high-repetition-rate burst mode laser output,” Appl. Opt. 48, B23–B31 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. D. Miller, M. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. R. Gord, “Ultrahigh-frame-rate OH fluorescence imaging in turbulent flames using a burst-mode optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1309–1311 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. R. Micol, “Langley aerothermodynamic facilities complex: enhancements and testing capabilities,” AIAA-1998-0147 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1998).
  12. P. M. Danehy, J. A. Inman, G. Brauckmann, D. W. Alderfer, S. B. Jones, and D. Patry, “Visualization of a capsule entry vehicle reaction-control system thruster,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 46, 93–102 (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, J. A. Inman, K. T. Berger, G. M. Buck, and R. J. Schwartz, “Fluorescence imaging and streakline visualization of hypersonic flow over rapid prototype wind-tunnel models,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. G. J. Aerosp. Eng. 222, 637–651 (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. J. A. Inman, P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, G. M. Buck, and A. McCrea, “Planar fluorescence imaging and three-dimensional reconstructions of capsule reaction-control-system jets,” AIAA J. 47, 803–812 (2009). [CrossRef]
  15. C. K. Ni and A. H. Kung, “Effective suppression of amplified spontaneous emission by stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1673–1675 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. K. Lee, D. W. Lee, and H. J. Kong, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering by a multi-mode pump with a large number of longitudinal modes,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 46, 443–447, (2005).
  17. J. Auyeung, D. Fekete, D. Pepper, and A. Yariv, “A theoretical and experimental investigation of the modes of optical resonators with phase-conjugate mirrors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1180–1188, (1979). [CrossRef]
  18. R. W. Boyd and K. Rzaewski, “Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5514–5521 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Y. Dergachev, B. Pati, and P. F. Moulton, “Efficient third-harmonic generation with a Ti:sapphire laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 1999).
  20. P. M. Danehy, A. P. Garcia, S. Borg, A. A. Dyakonov, S. A. Berry, J. A. Wilkes Inman, and D. W. Alderfer, “Fluorescence visualization of hypersonic flow past triangular and rectangular boundary-layer trips,” AIAA-2007-0536 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2007).
  21. C. H. Campbell, M. T. Garske, J. Kinder, and S. A. Berry, “Orbiter entry boundary layer flight testing,” AIAA-2008-0635 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2008).
  22. B. P. Anderson, C. H. Campbell, L. A. Saucedo, and G. R. Kinder, “BLT flight experiment overview and in situ measurements,” AIAA-2010-0240 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).
  23. P. M. Danehy, C. B. Ivey, B. F. Bathel, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, A. N. Watkins, K. Z. Goodman, B. D. Leighty, W. K. Lipford, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “Orbiter BLT flight experiment wind tunnel simulations: Nearfield flowfield imaging and surface thermography,” AIAA-2010-1571 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).
  24. P. M. Danehy, C. Ivey, J. A. Inman, B. Bathel, S. B. Jones, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “High-speed PLIF imaging of hypersonic transition over discrete cylindrical roughness,” AIAA-2010-0703 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).
  25. N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, and P. M. Danehy, “MHz-rate NO PLIF imaging in a Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA-2010-1407 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).
  26. D. S. Liechty, “Aerothermodynamic testing of protuberances and penetrations on the NASA crew exploration vehicle heat shield,” AIAA-2008-1240 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2008).
  27. C. Orlemann, C. Schulz, and J. Wolfrom, “NO-flow tagging by photodissociation of NO2. A new approach for measuring small-scale flow structures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 15–20(1999). [CrossRef]
  28. A. H. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, “Molecular tagging using vibrationally excited nitric oxide in an underexpanded jet flowfield,” AIAA J. 47, 2597–2604 (2009). [CrossRef]
  29. B. K. McMillan, J. L. Palmer, and R. K. Hanson, “Temporally resolved, two-line fluorescence imaging of NO temperature in a transverse jet in a supersonic cross flow,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7532–7545 (1993). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited