OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 50, Iss. 6 — Feb. 20, 2011
  • pp: 935–942

Efficiency of integrated waveguide probes for the detection of light backscattered from weakly scattering media

Nur Ismail, Fehmi Civitci, Kerstin Wörhoff, René M. de Ridder, Markus Pollnau, and Alfred Driessen  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 50, Issue 6, pp. 935-942 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1126 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A semianalytical model for light collection by integrated waveguide probes is developed by extending previous models used to describe fiber probes. The efficiency of waveguide probes is compared to that of different types of fiber probes for different thicknesses of a weakly scattering sample. The simulation results show that integrated probes have a collection efficiency that is higher than that of small-core fiber probes, and, in the particular case of thin samples, also exceeds the collection efficiency of large-core highly multimode fiber probes. An integrated waveguide probe with one excitation and eight collector waveguides is fabricated and applied to excite and collect luminescence from a ruby rod. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation and validate the semianalytical model.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
(130.0130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics
(170.6280) Medical optics and biotechnology : Spectroscopy, fluorescence and luminescence
(010.1350) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Backscattering

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

Original Manuscript: December 15, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: January 6, 2011
Published: February 17, 2011

Virtual Issues
Vol. 6, Iss. 3 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Nur Ismail, Fehmi Civitci, Kerstin Wörhoff, René M. de Ridder, Markus Pollnau, and Alfred Driessen, "Efficiency of integrated waveguide probes for the detection of light backscattered from weakly scattering media," Appl. Opt. 50, 935-942 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 121–147 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. D. Schwab and R. L. McCreery, “Versatile, efficient Raman sampling with fiber optics,” Anal. Chem. 56, 2199–2204 (1984). [CrossRef]
  3. P. Plaza, N. Q. Dao, M. Jouan, H. Fevrier, and H. Saisse, “Simulation et optimisation des capteurs a fibres optiques adjacentes,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3448–3454 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. F. Cooney, H. T. Skinner, and S. M. Angel, “Comparative study of some fiber-optic remote Raman probe designs. Part I: model for liquids and transparent solids,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 836–848 (1996). [CrossRef]
  5. A. Ishimaru, “Theory and application of wave propagation and scattering in random media,” Proc. IEEE 65, 1030–1061 (1977). [CrossRef]
  6. N. Ismail, F. Sun, K. Wörhoff, A. Driessen, R. M. de Ridder, and M. Pollnau, “Excitation and light collection from highly scattering media with integrated waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published). [CrossRef]
  7. N. Ismail, B. I. Akca, F. Sun, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, and A. Driessen, “An integrated approach to laser delivery and confocal signal detection,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2741–2743 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “In vivo confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the skin: noninvasive determination of molecular concentration profiles,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 434–442 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. I. R. Lewis and P. R. Griffith, “Raman spectrometry with fiber-optic sampling,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 12A–30A (1996). [CrossRef]
  10. P. Olivier, S. Rioux, and D. Gagnon, “Mathematical modeling of the solid angle function, part II: transmission through refractive media,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2266–2270 (1993). [CrossRef]
  11. K. Wörhoff, L. T. H. Hilderink, A. Driessen, and P. V. Lambeck, “Silicon oxynitride: a versatile material for integrated optics application,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, F85–F91(2002). [CrossRef]
  12. R. Herrmann and J. Hertel, “Mode launching on a multimode slab-waveguide by a plane wave,” Appl. Phys. A 9, 307–313(1976). [CrossRef]
  13. In case of a Gaussian profile, the NA would be defined by the angle at which the collected power decays by 1/e2 with respect to the maximum. The integral of a Gaussian function between 0 and the point where it decays by 1/e2 is 95.5% of the integral between 0 and +∞.
  14. W. Zhang, C. Hou, Y. Geng, and G. Yang, “Closely packed micro optical fiber arrays in laser scanning system,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41, 981–988 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. T. H. Maiman, R. H. Hoskins, I. J. D’Haenens, C. K. Asawa, and V. Evtuhov, “Stimulated optical emission in fluorescent solids. II. Spectroscopy and stimulated emission in ruby,” Phys. Rev. 123, 1151–1157 (1961). [CrossRef]
  16. D. C. Cronemeyer, “Optical absorption characteristics of pink ruby,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1703–1705 (1966). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited