OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 51, Iss. 12 — Apr. 20, 2012
  • pp: 2107–2117

Method to correct the distortion caused by amplified stimulated emission as motivated by LIF-based flow diagnostics

Xuesong Li, Yan Zhao, and Lin Ma  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 51, Issue 12, pp. 2107-2117 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.51.002107


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1083 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Amplified stimulated emission (ASE) represents a significant issue in two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (TPLIF). The ASE effects are nonlinear and nonlocal, i.e., the ASE effects distort the LIF signal nonlinearly, and the distortion at one location depends on conditions at other locations. In this sense, the ASE effects pose a greater challenge to quantitative TPLIF than quenching and ionization. This work therefore seeks a method to correct such distortion. The method uses two LIF measurements, one with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and negligible ASE distortion and another with high SNR but significant distortion, to generate a faithful measurement with high SNR. Extensive simulations were performed to evaluate the performance of this method for practical applications.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.1740) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Combustion diagnostics
(300.2530) Spectroscopy : Fluorescence, laser-induced
(300.6420) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, nonlinear

ToC Category:
Spectroscopy

History
Original Manuscript: November 9, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: January 19, 2012
Published: April 18, 2012

Citation
Xuesong Li, Yan Zhao, and Lin Ma, "Method to correct the distortion caused by amplified stimulated emission as motivated by LIF-based flow diagnostics," Appl. Opt. 51, 2107-2117 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-51-12-2107


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Gordon and Breach, 1996).
  2. K. C. Smyth and D. R. Crosley, “Detection of minor species with laser techniques,” in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K. Kohse-Hoinghaus and J. B. Jeffries, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 2002), pp. 9–68.
  3. N. Georgiev and M. Alden, “Two-dimensional imaging of flame species using two-photon laser-induced fluorescence,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 1229–1237 (1997). [CrossRef]
  4. J. H. Frank, X. L. Chen, B. D. Patterson, and T. B. Settersten, “Comparison of nanosecond and picosecond excitation for two-photon laser-induced fluorescence imaging of atomic oxygen in flames,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2588–2597 (2004). [CrossRef]
  5. N. J. Bednar, J. W. Walewski, and S. T. Sanders, “Assessment of multiphoton absorption in inert gases for the measurement of gas temperatures,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 246–253 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. A. G. Hsu, V. Narayanaswamy, N. T. Clemens, and J. H. Frank, “Mixture fraction imaging in turbulent non-premixed flames with two-photon LIF of krypton,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 33 (Combustion Institute, 2011), pp. 759–766.
  7. M. Richter, Z. S. Li, and M. Alden, “Application of two-photon laser-induced fluorescence for single-shot visualization of carbon monoxide in a spark ignited engine,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 1–5 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. U. Westblom and M. Alden, “Laser-induced fluorescence detection of NH3 in flames with the use of 2-photon excitation,” Appl. Spectrosc. 44, 881–886 (1990). [CrossRef]
  9. K. Nyholm, R. Fritzon, N. Georgiev, and M. Alden, “Two-photon induced polarization spectroscopy applied to the detection of NH3 and CO molecules in cold flows and flames,” Opt. Commun. 114, 76–82 (1995). [CrossRef]
  10. J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Photonchemical effects in 2-photon-excited fluorescence detection of atomic oxygen in flames,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3566–3572 (1987). [CrossRef]
  11. J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Two-photon-excited stimulated-emission from atomic-hydrogen in flames,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1979–1985 (1989). [CrossRef]
  12. N. Georgiev, K. Nyholm, R. Fritzon, and M. Alden, “Developments of the amplified stimulated-emission technique for spatially resolved species detection in flames,” Opt. Commun. 108, 71–76 (1994). [CrossRef]
  13. A. D. Tserepi, E. Wurzberg, and T. A. Miller, “Two-photon-excited stimulated emission from atomic oxygen in RF plasmas: detection and estimation of its threshold,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 265, 297–302 (1997). [CrossRef]
  14. L. W. Casperson, “Rate-equation approximations in high-gain lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3073–3085 (1997). [CrossRef]
  15. J. W. Daily, “Use of rate equations to describe laser excitation in flames,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2322–2327 (1977). [CrossRef]
  16. J. Amorim, G. Baravian, and J. Jolly, “Laser-induced resonance fluorescence as a diagnostic technique in non-thermal equilibrium plasmas,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 33, R51–R65 (2000). [CrossRef]
  17. H. Bergstrom, H. Lundberg, and A. Persson, “Investigations of stimulated-emission on B-A lines in CO,” Z. Phys. D: At. Mol. Clusters 21, 323–327 (1991). [CrossRef]
  18. Y. L. Huang and R. J. Gordon, “The effect of amplified spontaneous emission on the measurement of the multiplet state distribution of ground-state oxygen atoms,” J. Chem. Phys. 97, 6363–6368 (1992). [CrossRef]
  19. J. Amorim, G. Baravian, M. Touzeau, and J. Jolly, “Two-photon laser-induced fluorescence and amplified spontaneous emission atom concentration measurements in O(2) and H(2) discharges,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1487–1493 (1994). [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Zhao, C. N. Tong, and L. Ma, “Demonstration of a new laser diagnostic based on photodissociation spectroscopy for imaging mixture fraction in a non-premixed jet flame,” Appl. Spectrosc. 64, 377–383 (2010). [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Zhao, C. N. Tong, and L. Ma, “Assessment of a novel flow visualization technique using photodissociation spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 63, 199–206 (2009). [CrossRef]
  22. T. B. Settersten, and M. A. Linne, “Modeling pulsed excitation for gas-phase laser diagnostics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 954–964 (2002). [CrossRef]
  23. L. Allen and G. I. Peters, “Amplified spontaneous emission and external signal amplification in an inverted medium,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 2031–2047 (1973). [CrossRef]
  24. M. E. Riley, “Growth of parametric fields in (2+1)-photon laser ionization of atomic oxygen,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 4843–4856 (1990). [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Zhao and L. Ma, “Multidimensional Monte Carlo model for two-photon LIF and amplified spontaneous emission,” Comput. Phys. Commun., doi:10.1016/j.cpc.2012.02.027 (to be published). [CrossRef]
  26. M. Alden, U. Westblom, and J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Two-photon-excited stimulated emission from atomic oxygen in flames and cold gases,” Opt. Lett. 14, 305–307 (1989). [CrossRef]
  27. S. Agrup, F. Ossler, and M. Alden, “Measurements of collisional quenching of hydrogen atoms in an atmospheric-pressure hydrogen oxygen flame by picosecond laser-induced fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 479–487 (1995). [CrossRef]
  28. K. Niemi, V. Schulz-von der Gathen, and H. F. Dobele, “Absolute calibration of atomic density measurements by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy with two-photon excitation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34, 2330–2335 (2001). [CrossRef]
  29. L. Cerdan, A. Costela, and I. Garcia-Moreno, “On the characteristic lengths in the variable stripe length method for optical gain measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1874–1877(2010). [CrossRef]
  30. R. C. Y. Auyeung, D. G. Cooper, S. Kim, and B. J. Feldman, “Stimulated-emission in atomic-hydrogen at 656 nm,” Opt. Commun. 79, 207–210 (1990). [CrossRef]
  31. W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, and B. M. Glennon, “Atomic Transition Probabilities,” Vol. 1, National Standard Reference Data Series, NSRDS-NBS, Issue 4 (National Bureau of Standards, 1966).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited