OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 51, Iss. 16 — Jun. 1, 2012
  • pp: 3145–3152

Experimental verification of the limits of optical channel intensity reciprocity

Dirk Giggenbach, William Cowley, Ken Grant, and Nicolas Perlot  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 51, Issue 16, pp. 3145-3152 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (683 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Optical data links through the atmosphere suffer from turbulence-induced signal scintillation. In a coaxially-symmetric bidirectional link scenario, the variations of the axial intensities at both ends are correlated. This relation can be used as an inherent feedback mechanism, with negligible delay, to enhance the capacity of the transmission system. By experiment, we show the correlation coefficient of both received signals can reach values close to one over long atmospheric distances, provided the receiver apertures are smaller than specific intensity speckle structures, while the correlation reduces gradually with larger apertures. This allows transmission capacity to be optimized with adaptive transceiver systems that take into account the degree of correlation.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1300) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric propagation
(060.2605) Fiber optics and optical communications : Free-space optical communication

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

Original Manuscript: February 10, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: March 1, 2012
Published: May 22, 2012

Dirk Giggenbach, William Cowley, Ken Grant, and Nicolas Perlot, "Experimental verification of the limits of optical channel intensity reciprocity," Appl. Opt. 51, 3145-3152 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. I. B. Djordjevic, “Adaptive modulation and coding for free-space optical channels,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2, 221–229 (2010). [CrossRef]
  2. S. Bloom, E. Korevaar, J. Schuster, and H. Willebrand, “Understanding the performance of free-space optics [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2, 178–200 (2003).
  3. L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media2nd ed. (SPIE Press, 2005).
  4. J. W. Strohbehn, ed., Laser Beam Propagation in the Atmosphere (Springer,1978).
  5. L. C. Andrews, “Aperture-averaging factor for optical scintillations of plane and spherical waves in the atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 597–600 (1992). [CrossRef]
  6. J. H. Churnside, “Aperture averaging of optical scintillation in the turbulent atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1982–1994(1991). [CrossRef]
  7. M. A. Khalighi, N. Aitamer, N. Schwartz, and S. Bourennane, “Turbulence mitigation by aperture averaging in wireless optical systems,” in ConTEL 2009, 10th International Conference on Telecommunications (IEEE, 2009), pp. 59–66.
  8. R. F. Lutomirski and H. T. Yura, “Propagation of a finite optical beam in an inhomogeneous medium,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1652–1658 (1971). [CrossRef]
  9. J. H. Shapiro, “Reciprocity of the turbulent atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 492–495 (1971). [CrossRef]
  10. J. H. Shapiro, “Optimal power transfer through atmospheric turbulence using state knowledge,” IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. 19, 410–414 (1971). [CrossRef]
  11. D. L. Fried and H. T. Yura, “Telescope-performance reciprocity for propagation in a turbulent medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 600–602 (1972). [CrossRef]
  12. V. A. Banakh and V. L. Mironov, Lidar in a Turbulent Atmosphere (Artech House, 1987).
  13. J. F. Holmes, “Enhancement of backscattered intensity for a bistatic lidar operating in atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2643–2646 (1991). [CrossRef]
  14. V. A. Banakh, I. N. Smalikho, and C. Werner, “Numerical simulation of the effect of refractive turbulence on coherent lidar return statistics in the atmosphere” Appl. Opt. 39, 5403–5414(2000). [CrossRef]
  15. R. R. Parenti, J. M. Roth, J. Shapiro, and F. G. Walther, “Observations of channel reciprocity in optical free-space communications experiments,” in Applications of Lasers for Sensing and Free Space Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011).
  16. F. G. Walther, S. Michael, R. R. Parenti, and J. A. Taylor, “Air-to-ground lasercom system demonstration design overview and results summary,” Proc. SPIE 7814, 78140Y (2010). [CrossRef]
  17. J. D. Barchers and D. L. Fried, “Optimal control of laser beams for propagation through a turbulent medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1779–1793 (2002). [CrossRef]
  18. N. Perlot and D. Giggenbach, “Scintillation correlation between forward and return spherical waves,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  19. L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation Through Random Media (SPIE Press, 1998), p. 186.
  20. F. G. Smith, ed., The Infrared & Electro-Optical Systems Handbook, Volume 2: Atmospheric Propagation of Radiation, 2nd ed. (SPIE-Press, 1996).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited