OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 51, Iss. 16 — Jun. 1, 2012
  • pp: 3552–3557

Quantitative determination of higher harmonic content in the soft x-ray spectra of toroidal grating monochromator using a reflection multilayer

Mohammed H. Modi, R. K. Gupta, Amol Singh, and G. S. Lodha  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 51, Issue 16, pp. 3552-3557 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.51.003552


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1106 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Use of a grating monochromator causes a problem of higher harmonic contaminations in a synchrotron beamline operating in the soft x ray/vacuum ultraviolet region. Generally gratings are used to experimentally determine the higher harmonic contaminations. In this method, the relative contribution of contaminant wavelengths is measured with respect to the first harmonic wavelength (desired wavelength). The quantitative fit of grating spectra is rather complex, and therefore qualitative analysis is carried out. Analysis of multilayer reflectivity data has become rather simple with recent advances in the theoretical modeling. Therefore we propose to use a multilayer mirror and analyze its reflectivity data for quantitative determination of harmonic contamination in a soft x ray beamline. In the present study we used a Mo/Si multilayer of d=97Å to quantify the spectral purity of 600lines/mm toroidal grating at the reflectivity beamline of Indus-1 450 MeV synchrotron source. The measured reflectivity spectra at each wavelength is analyzed and the actual contribution of higher harmonics in the incident beam is obtained. Details of methodology and results are discussed.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.5700) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Reflection
(230.1480) Optical devices : Bragg reflectors
(340.0340) X-ray optics : X-ray optics
(340.7470) X-ray optics : X-ray mirrors

ToC Category:
X-ray Optics

History
Original Manuscript: February 8, 2012
Revised Manuscript: April 9, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: April 10, 2012
Published: May 31, 2012

Citation
Mohammed H. Modi, R. K. Gupta, Amol Singh, and G. S. Lodha, "Quantitative determination of higher harmonic content in the soft x-ray spectra of toroidal grating monochromator using a reflection multilayer," Appl. Opt. 51, 3552-3557 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-51-16-3552


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. M. Kühne and P. Müller, “Higher order contributions in the synchrotron radiation spectrum of a toroidal grating monochromator determined by the use of a transmission grating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2101–2104 (1989). [CrossRef]
  2. R. L. Cavasso Filho, M. G. P. Homem, R. Landers, and A. Naves de Brito, “Advances on the Brazilian toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) beamline,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144—147, 1125–1127 (2005). [CrossRef]
  3. J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50–1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. R. L. Cavasso Filho, M. G. P. Homen, P. T. Fonseca, and A. aves de Brito, “A synchrotron beamline for delivering high purity vacuum ultraviolet photons,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 115104 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. L. I. Goray, “Numerical analysis of the efficiency of multilayer-coated gratings using integral method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 536, 211–221 (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. S. Banerjee, S. Ferrari, D. Chateigner, and A. Gibaud, “Recent advances in characterization of ultra-thin films using specular x-ray reflectivity technique,” Thin Solid Films 450, 23–28 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95, 359–369 (1954). [CrossRef]
  8. L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Caractérisation des surfaces par réflexion rasante de rayons X Application à l’étude du polissage de quelques verres silicates,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980). [CrossRef]
  9. M. G. Pelizzo, F. Frassetto, P. Nicolosi, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Polarization and higher-order content measurement of a soft-x-ray monochromatized beam with Mo-Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1985–1992 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, V. K. Raghuvanshi, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Soft x-ray reflectometer on Indus-1,” Synchrotron Radiation News 17(2), 33–35 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Current Science 82, 298–304 (2002).
  12. E. M. Gullikson, R. Korde, L. R. Canfield, and R. E. Vest, “Stable silicon photodiodes for absolute intensity measurements in the VUV and soft x-ray regions,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 313–316 (1996). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited