OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 51, Iss. 18 — Jun. 20, 2012
  • pp: 4151–4156

Surface stresses of mixed-mode grinding materials on borosilicate glass

James B. Johnson, Robert E. Parks, and James H. Burge  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 51, Issue 18, pp. 4151-4156 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (909 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Mixed-mode grinding occurs when a bound abrasive works in both brittle and ductile regimes simultaneously. Substrates ground in a mixed-mode behavior show reduced curvature induced by compressive surface forces than loose abrasives as demonstrated by observing the Twyman effect. This reduction in bending corresponds to reduced subsurface damage. This is verified by controlled acid etching, which shows the exponential decay of the compressive force per unit length. Loose abrasive particles, added to maintain pad wear due to low pressures, have no effect on the measured stresses. If loose abrasive wear ceases, the pads glaze. Glazing creates near-specular surfaces while reducing measurable stress. These effects for borosilicate glass and Trizact grinding pads are explored and quantified.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
(160.4760) Materials : Optical properties
(220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication
(220.4610) Optical design and fabrication : Optical fabrication

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

Original Manuscript: February 22, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: March 26, 2012
Published: June 15, 2012

James B. Johnson, Robert E. Parks, and James H. Burge, "Surface stresses of mixed-mode grinding materials on borosilicate glass," Appl. Opt. 51, 4151-4156 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. F. Twyman, “Polishing of glass surfaces,” Proceedings of the Optical Convention (Northgate & Williams, 1905), p. 78.
  2. F. W. Preston, “The structure of abraded glass surfaces,” Trans. Opt. Soc. 23, 141–164 (1922). [CrossRef]
  3. A. J. Dalladay and F. Twyman, “The stress conditions in diamond cut glass,” Trans. Opt. Soc. 23, 165–169 (1922). [CrossRef]
  4. A. J. Dalladay, “Some measurements of the stresses produced at the surfaces of glass by grinding with loose abrasives,” Trans. Opt. Soc. 23, 170–174 (1922). [CrossRef]
  5. C. V. Muffoletto, “Reflective and refractive scattering of ultraviolet radiation caused by state of the art optical grinding and polishing techniques,” Proc. SPIE 315, 85–89 (1981).
  6. E. G. Nikolova, “On the Twyman effect and some of its applications,” J. Mater. Sci. 20, 1–8 (1985). [CrossRef]
  7. G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. A 82, 172–175 (1909). [CrossRef]
  8. O. Podzimek, “Residual stress and deformation energy underground surfaces of brittle solids,” CIRP Ann. 35, 397–400 (1986). [CrossRef]
  9. W. J. Rupp, “Twyman effect for ULE,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop (Optical Society of America, 1987), pp. 25–30.
  10. D. Golini and S. D. Jacobs, “Physics of loose abrasive microgrinding,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2761–2777 (1991). [CrossRef]
  11. J. C. Lambropoulos, T. Fang, A. Lindquist, and D. Golini, “The Twyman Effect under loose abrasive lapping and deterministic microgrinding,” Ceram. Trans. 70, 59–70 (1996).
  12. J. C. Lambropoulos, S. Xu, T. Fang, and D. Golini, “Twyman effect mechanics in grinding and microgrinding,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5704–5713 (1996). [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Zhong and V. C. Venkatesh, “Semi-ductile grinding and polishing of ophthalmic aspherics and spherics,” CIRP Ann. 44, 339–342 (1995). [CrossRef]
  14. N. S. Ong and V. C. Venkatesh, “Semi-ductile grinding and polishing of Pyrex glass,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 83, 261–266 (1998). [CrossRef]
  15. J. B. Johnson, D. W. Kim, R. E. Parks, and J. H. Burge, “New approach for pre-polish grinding with low subsurface damage,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 81261E (2011). [CrossRef]
  16. D. D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, V. Doubrovski, C. Dunn, R. Freeman, G. Hobbs, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, J. Simms, and X. Wei, “New results extending the precessions process to smoothing ground aspheres and producing freeform parts,” Proc. SPIE 5869, 58690E (2005). [CrossRef]
  17. N. J. Brown and B. A. Fuchs, “Shear mode grinding,” in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Symposium on Frequency Control (IEEE, 1989), pp. 606–610.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited