OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 51, Iss. 18 — Jun. 20, 2012
  • pp: 4157–4167

Passive 77 GHz millimeter-wave sensor based on optical upconversion

John P. Wilson, Christopher A. Schuetz, Thomas E. Dillon, Peng Yao, Charles E. Harrity, and Dennis W. Prather  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 51, Issue 18, pp. 4157-4167 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.51.004157


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1245 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A passive millimeter-wave (mmW) sensor operating at a frequency of 77 GHz is built and characterized. The sensor is a single pixel sensor that raster scans to create an image. Optical upconversion is used to convert the incident mmW signal into an optical signal for detection. Components were picked to be representative of a single element in a distributed aperture system. The performance of the system is analyzed, and the noise equivalent temperature difference is found to be 0.5 K (for a 1 s integration time) with a diffraction limited resolution of 8mrad. Representative images are shown that demonstrate the phenomenology associated with this spectrum.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
(280.0280) Remote sensing and sensors : Remote sensing and sensors
(040.2235) Detectors : Far infrared or terahertz
(280.4991) Remote sensing and sensors : Passive remote sensing
(110.5405) Imaging systems : Polarimetric imaging
(010.5630) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Radiometry

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

History
Original Manuscript: March 29, 2012
Revised Manuscript: April 20, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: April 22, 2012
Published: June 15, 2012

Citation
John P. Wilson, Christopher A. Schuetz, Thomas E. Dillon, Peng Yao, Charles E. Harrity, and Dennis W. Prather, "Passive 77 GHz millimeter-wave sensor based on optical upconversion," Appl. Opt. 51, 4157-4167 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-51-18-4157


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. L. Yujiri, “Passive millimeter wave imaging,” in Microwave Symposium Digest, 2006. IEEE MTT-S International (IEEE, 2006), pp. 98–101.
  2. R. Appleby, “Passive millimetre-wave imaging and how it differs from terahertz imaging,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 362, 379–393 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. D. Wikner, “Millimeter-wave propagation through a controlled dust environment,” Proc. SPIE 6548, 654803 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. G. Brooker, R. Hennessey, C. Lobsey, M. Bishop, and E. Widzyk-Capehart, “Seeing through dust and water vapor: millimeter wave radar sensors for mining applications,” J. Field Robot. 24, 527–557 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. H. J. Liebe, “MPM-An atmospheric millimeter-wave propagation model,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 10, 631–650 (1989). [CrossRef]
  6. J. R. Pardo, J. Cernicharo, and E. Serabyn, “Atmospheric transmission at microwaves (ATM): an improved model for mm/submm applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 49, 1683–1694 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. E. R. Westwater, J. B. Snider, and M. J. Falls, “Ground-based radiometric observations of atmospheric emission and attenuation at 20.6, 31.65, and 90:0 Ghz—a comparison of measurements and theory,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 38, 1569–1580 (1990). [CrossRef]
  8. D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, and T. E. Hall, “Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 49, 1581–1592 (2001). [CrossRef]
  9. L. Zhang, J. Stiens, A. Elhawil, and R. Vounckx, “Multispectral illumination and image processing techniques for active millimeter-wave concealed object detection,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6357–6365 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. C. Cull, D. Wikner, J. Mait, M. Mattheiss, and D. Brady, “Millimeter-wave compressive holography,” Appl. Opt. 49, E67–E82 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. R. Appleby, R. N. Anderton, S. Price, N. A. Salmon, G. N. Sinclair, J. R. Borrill, P. R. Coward, V. P. Papakosta, A. H. Lettington, and D. A. Robertson, “Compact real-time (video rate) passive millimeter-wave imager,” Proc. SPIE 3703, 13–19 (1999). [CrossRef]
  12. D. A. Wikner, “Polarimetric passive millimeter-wave sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4373, 86–93 (2001). [CrossRef]
  13. C. A. Schuetz, J. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, “Radiometric millimeter-wave detection via optical upconversion and carrier suppression,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53, 1732–1738 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. J. Macario, C. A. Schuetz, P. Yao, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, “Development and characterization of LiNbO3 electro-optic phase modulator at 220 GHz for millimeter-wave imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 8188, 81880E (2011). [CrossRef]
  15. T. E. Dillon, C. A. Schuetz, R. D. Martin, S. Shi, D. G. Mackrides, and D. W. Prather, “Passive millimeter wave imaging using a distributed aperture and optical upconversion,” Proc. SPIE 7837, 78370H (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. J. Wenger, “Automotive radar—status and perspectives,” in Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symposium, 2005—CSIC ’05 (IEEE, 2005), 4 pp.
  17. A. Yariv, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford University, 2007).
  18. C. A. Schuetz, “Optical techniques for millimeter-wave detection and imaging,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Delaware, 2007).
  19. P. M. Blanchard, A. H. Greenaway, A. R. Harvey, and K. Webster, “Coherent optical beam forming with passive millimeter-wave arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 418–425 (1999). [CrossRef]
  20. E. L. Stein, “Design and development of passive millimeter-wave imaging systems,” M.S. dissertation (University of Delaware, 2009).
  21. F. Ulaby, Microwave Remote Sensing, Vol III (Artech House, 2011).
  22. R. G. Driggers, C. M. Webb, S. J. Pruchnic, C. E. Halford, and E. E. Burroughs, “Laboratory measurement of sampled infrared imaging system performance,” Opt. Eng. 38, 852–861 (1999). [CrossRef]
  23. W. N. Hardy, “Precision temperature reference for microwave radiometry (short papers),” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 21, 149–150 (1973). [CrossRef]
  24. J. P. Wilson, D. G. Mackrides, J. P. Samluk, and D. W. Prather, “Comparison of diurnal contrast changes for millimeter-wave and infrared imagery,” Appl. Opt. 49, E31–E37 (2010). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited