OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 51, Iss. 22 — Aug. 1, 2012
  • pp: 5573–5578

Waveguiding properties in Yb:YAG crystals implanted with protons and carbon ions

G. V. Vázquez, D. Ramírez, H. Márquez, E. Flores-Romero, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 51, Issue 22, pp. 5573-5578 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (440 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We report the fabrication and analysis of optical waveguides in Yb:YAG crystals using either proton or carbon ion implantation. Planar waveguides were obtained by implanting the whole surface of the crystals. Channel waveguides were defined using an electroformed mask with apertures of 10, 15, and 20 micrometers in width. The waveguiding properties of the structures were analyzed, showing good light confinement based on the transversal mode distribution and optical transmission measurements. The spectroscopic properties of the Yb ions in the YAG host are preserved after the implantation process, which demonstrates the potential of this technique for tailoring microcomponents for integrated optics applications. In particular, the Yb:YAG waveguides have the potential to operate as miniature lasers.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.5690) Materials : Rare-earth-doped materials
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

Original Manuscript: April 2, 2012
Revised Manuscript: June 13, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: June 20, 2012
Published: July 31, 2012

G. V. Vázquez, D. Ramírez, H. Márquez, E. Flores-Romero, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, "Waveguiding properties in Yb:YAG crystals implanted with protons and carbon ions," Appl. Opt. 51, 5573-5578 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge University, 1994).
  2. D. C. Hanna, J. K. Jones, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, M. J. Rodman, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Quasi-three level 1.03 μm laser operation of a planar ion-implanted Yb:YAG waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 99, 211–215 (1993). [CrossRef]
  3. E. Flores-Romero, G. V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Optical channel waveguides by proton and carbon implantation in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 8513–8520 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. J. F. Ziegler, “The stopping of energetic light ions in elemental matter,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1249–1272 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. P. J. Chandler, and F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta 33, 127–143 (1986). [CrossRef]
  6. L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, “Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440–3446 (1991). [CrossRef]
  7. G. V. Vázquez, “Advances in quality of optical waveguides in Nd:YAG and LiNbO3,” PhD Thesis (University of Sussex, 2000).
  8. G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, and M. Domenech, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation,” Opt. Commun. 218, 141–146 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. E. Flores-Romero, G. V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, R. Rangel, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Planar waveguide lasers by proton implantation in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Express 12, 2264–2269 (2004). [CrossRef]
  10. S. I. Najafi, Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics (Artech House, 1992).
  11. M. A. López-Urquieta, E. Flores-Romero, G. V. Vázquez, and H. Márquez, “Characterization of channel waveguides fabricated by high dose proton implantation in Nd:YAG,” Proc. SPIE 8120, 81201H (2011). [CrossRef]
  12. V. Petit, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, V. Menard, and R. Moncorge, “CW and tunable laser operation of Yb3+ doped CaF2, ” Appl. Phys. B 78, 681–684 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. Q. Hao, W. Li, H. Zeng, Q. Yang, C. Dou, H. Zhou, and W. Lu, “Low-threshold and broadly tunable lasers of Yb3+− doped yttrium lanthanum oxide ceramic,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 211106 (2008). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited