OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 51, Iss. 24 — Aug. 20, 2012
  • pp: 5946–5951

Atomic-level study of a thickness-dependent phase change in gold thin films heated by an ultrafast laser

Yong Gan, Jixiang Shi, and Shan Jiang  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 51, Issue 24, pp. 5946-5951 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (533 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



An ultrafast laser-induced phase change in gold thin films with different thicknesses has been simulated by the method of coupling the two-temperature model and the molecular dynamics, including transient optical properties. Numerical results show that the decrease of film thickness leads to faster melting in the early nonequilibrium time and a larger melting depth. Moreover, earlier occurrence and a higher rate of resolidification are observed for the thicker film. Further analysis reveals that the mechanism for the thickness-dependent phase change in the films is the fast electron thermal conduction in the nonequilibrium state.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3330) Lasers and laser optics : Laser damage
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(140.6810) Lasers and laser optics : Thermal effects
(320.7090) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast lasers
(320.7130) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast processes in condensed matter, including semiconductors

ToC Category:
Ultrafast Optics

Original Manuscript: May 31, 2012
Revised Manuscript: July 26, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: July 27, 2012
Published: August 20, 2012

Yong Gan, Jixiang Shi, and Shan Jiang, "Atomic-level study of a thickness-dependent phase change in gold thin films heated by an ultrafast laser," Appl. Opt. 51, 5946-5951 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. W. Falcone, “High-density plasmas produced by ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 155–158 (1989). [CrossRef]
  2. H. Zewail, “Femtochemistry: atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond using ultrafast lasers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39, 2586–2631 (2000). [CrossRef]
  3. U. K. Tirlapur and K. König, “Targeted transfection by femtosecond laser,” Nature 418, 290–291 (2002). [CrossRef]
  4. M. D. Shirk and P. A. Molian, “A review of ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of materials,” J. Laser Appl. 10, 18–28 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. F. Korte, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Formation of microbumps and nanojets on gold targets by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 879–881 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. J. Koch, F. Korte, T. Bauer, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanotexturing of gold films by femtosecond laser-induced melt dynamics,” Appl. Phys. A 81, 325–328 (2005). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Huang, Y. Zhang, and J. K. Chen, “Ultrafast phase change during femtosecond laser interaction with gold films: effect of film thickness,” Numer. Heat Transfer A Appl. 57, 893–910 (2010). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Huang, Y. Zhang, and J. K. Chen, “Superheating in liquid and solid phases during femtosecond-laser pulse interaction with thin metal film,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 113–121 (2011). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Gan and J. K. Chen, “Nonequilibrium phase change in gold films induced by ultrafast laser heating,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2691–2693 (2012). [CrossRef]
  10. D. S. Ivanov and L. V. Zhigilei, “Combined atomistic-continuum model for simulation of laser interaction with metals: application in the calculation of melting thresholds in Ni targets of varying thickness,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 79, 977–981 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Gan and J. K. Chen, “Thermomechanical wave propagation in gold films induced by ultrashort laser pulses,” Mech. Mater. 42, 491–501 (2010). [CrossRef]
  12. B. J. Demaske, V. V. Zhakhovsky, N. A. Inogamov, and I. I. Oleynik, “Ablation and spallation of gold films irradiated by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 064113 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Gan and J. K. Chen, “Integrated continuum-atomistic modeling of nonthermal ablation of gold nanofilms by femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201116 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. L. Jiang and H. L. Tsai, “Modeling of ultrashort laser pulse-train processing of metal thin films,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 50, 3461–3470 (2007). [CrossRef]
  15. A. Vial, A.-S. Grimault, D. Macias, D. Barchiesi, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085416 (2005). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Fox, Optical Properties of Solids (Oxford University, 2001).
  17. J. Hohlfeld, D. Grosenick, U. Conrad, and E. Matthias, “Femtosecond time-resolved reflection second-harmonic generation on polycrystalline copper,” Appl. Phys. A 60, 137–142 (1995). [CrossRef]
  18. X. Y. Wang, D. M. Riffe, Y.-S. Lee, and M. C. Downer, “Time-resolved electron-temperature measurement in a highly excited gold target using femtosecond thermionic emission,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 8016–8019 (1994). [CrossRef]
  19. J. K. Chen, J. E. Beraun, and C. L. Tham, “Investigation of thermal response caused by pulse laser heating,” Numer. Heat Transfer 44, 705–722 (2003). [CrossRef]
  20. S. M. Foiles, M. I. Baskes, and M. S. Daw, “Embedded-atom-method functions for the fcc metals Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt, and their alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 7983–7991 (1986). [CrossRef]
  21. Z. Lin, L. V. Zhigilei, and V. Celli, “Electron-phonon coupling and electron heat capacity of metals under conditions of strong electron-phonon nonequilibrium,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 075133 (2008). [CrossRef]
  22. D. S. Ivanov and L. V. Zhigilei, “Combined atomistic-continuum modeling of short-pulse laser melting and disintegration of metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 064114 (2003). [CrossRef]
  23. L. V. Zhigilei, Z. Lin, and D. S. Ivanov, “Atomistic modeling of short pulse laser ablation of metals: connections between melting, spallation, and phase explosion,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11892–11906 (2009). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited