OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 51, Iss. 27 — Sep. 20, 2012
  • pp: 6594–6605

Traffic light to vehicle visible light communication channel characterization

Kaiyun Cui, Gang Chen, Zhengyuan Xu, and Richard D. Roberts  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 51, Issue 27, pp. 6594-6605 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1240 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Outdoor visible light communication (VLC) between an LED traffic light and an automobile has been proposed for intelligent transportation system development. An unobstructed line-of-sight (LOS) channel has to be guaranteed for this communication system. In this paper, an analytical LOS path loss model is proposed and validated by the measurement results. Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) LED traffic lights are characterized for use as transmitters and possible interference sources are studied, such as background solar radiation and artificial lighting. Accordingly, the performance of an outdoor VLC system is evaluated using different modulation schemes.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications
(120.4820) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical systems

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

Original Manuscript: July 5, 2012
Revised Manuscript: August 21, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: August 22, 2012
Published: September 18, 2012

Kaiyun Cui, Gang Chen, Zhengyuan Xu, and Richard D. Roberts, "Traffic light to vehicle visible light communication channel characterization," Appl. Opt. 51, 6594-6605 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. Akanegawa, Y. Tanaka, and M. Nakagawa, “Basic study on traffic information system using LED traffic lights,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 2, 197–203 (2001). [CrossRef]
  2. H. Binti Che Wook, T. Komine, S. Haruyama, and M. Nakagawa, “Visible light communication with LED-based traffic lights using 2-dimensional image sensor,” in Proceedings of Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC) (IEEE, 2006), pp. 243–247.
  3. S. Iwasaki, C. Premachandra, T. Endo, T. Fujii, M. Tanimoto, and Y. Kimura, “Visible light road-to-vehicle communication using high-speed camera,” in Proceedings of Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 13–18.
  4. N. Kumar, L. N. Alves, and R. L. Aguiar, “Design and analysis of the basic parameters for traffic information transmission using VLC,” in Proceedings of Wireless Communication, Vehicular Technology, Information Theory and Aerospace and Electronic Systems Technology VITAE (IEEE, 2009), pp. 798–802.
  5. I. E. Lee, M. L. Sim, and F. W. L. Kung, “Performance enhancement of outdoor visible-light communication system using selective combining receiver,” IET Optoelectron 3, 30–39 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. R. Roberts, P. Gopalakrishnan, and S. Rathi, “Visible light positioning: Automotive use case,” in Proceedings of Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 309–314.
  7. C. G. Lee, S. Park, and M. Kang, “Proposal of car-to-car message delivery over optical wireless communication link,” Rev. Laser Eng. 36, 1320–1322 (2008). [CrossRef]
  8. T. Matsumura, “Visible light communication using image sensor,” in IEEE 802.15.7 VLC standard meeting, no. 802.15-09-0502-00-0007, 2009.
  9. S. Okada, T. Yendo, T. Yamazato, T. Fujii, M. Tanimoto, and Y. Kimura, “On vehicle receiver for distant light road-to-vehicle communication,” in Proceedings of Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1033–1038.
  10. R. E. Bird, and C. Riordan, “Simple solar spectral model for direct and diffuse irradiance on horizontal and tilted planes at the Earth’s surface for cloudless atmospheres,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 25, 87–97 (1986). [CrossRef]
  11. A. J. C. Moreira, R. T. Valadas, and A. M. Duarte, “Characterisation and modelling of artificial light interference in optical wireless communication systems,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 6th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC’95) (IEEE1995), pp. 326–331.
  12. A. J. C. Moreira, R. T. Valadas, and A. M. Duarte, “Optical interference produced by artificial light,” Wireless Netw. 3, 131–140 (1997). [CrossRef]
  13. R. Narasimhan, M. D. Audeh, and J. M. Kahn, “Effect of electronic-ballast fluorescent lighting on wireless infrared links,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 143, 347–354 (1996). [CrossRef]
  14. C. Chang, Y. Su, U. Kurokawa, and B. Choi, “Interference rejection using filter-based sensor array in VLC systems,” IEEE Sensor J. 12, 1025–1032 (2012). [CrossRef]
  15. R. Perez-Jimenez, J. A. Rabadan, and F. J. Lopez-Hernandez, “Filtered modulation schemes for short distance infrared wireless communications,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 46, 275–282 (2000). [CrossRef]
  16. H. Elgala, and R. Mesleh, “Non-linearity effects and predistortion in optical ofdm wireless transmission using leds,” Intern. J. Ultra Wideband Commun. Syst. 1, 143–150 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University, 2006).
  18. T. Lee, and A. Dentai, “Power and modulation bandwidth of GaAs-AlGaAs high-radiance LED’s for optical communication systems,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 150–159 (1978). [CrossRef]
  19. H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “80  Mbit/s visible light communications using pre-equalized white LED,” in Proceedings of the 34th European Conference on Optical Communication ECOC (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.
  20. D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, Z. Lubin, L. Kyungwoo, and J. Daekwang, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1243–1245 (2008). [CrossRef]
  21. K. Cui, G. Chen, Z. Xu, and R. D. Roberts, “Line-of-sight visible light communication system design and demonstration,” in Proceedings of 2010 7th International Symposium on Communication Systems Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 621–625.
  22. N. Araki, and H. Yashima, “A channel model of optical wireless communication during rainfall,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (IEEE, 2005), pp. 205–209.
  23. M. A. Naboulsi, H. Sizun, and F. Fornel, “Fog attenuation prediction for optical and infrared waves,” Opt. Eng. 43, 319–329 (2004). [CrossRef]
  24. M. Araki, K. Ogawa, K. Wakamori, K. Kodate, and S. Ito, “Measurement and simulation of the effect of snowfall on free-space optical propagation,” Appl. Opt. 47, 5736–5743 (2008). [CrossRef]
  25. S. B. Alexander, Optical Communication Receiver Design (SPIE Optical Engineering, 1997).
  26. M. D. Audeh, and J. M. Kahn, “Performance evaluation of L-pulse-position modulation on non-directed indoor infrared channels,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (SUPERCOMM/ICC) (IEEE, 1994), pp. 660–664.
  27. Joint ISO/CIE Standard, ISO 16508:1999/CIE S006.1/E-1998, “Road Traffic Lights—Photometric Properties of 200 mm Roundel Signals.”

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited