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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 51, Iss. 30 — Oct. 20, 2012
  • pp: 7176–7182

Fat emulsions as diffusive reference standards for tissue simulating phantoms?

Paola Di Ninni, Yves Bérubé-Lauzière, Luca Mercatelli, Elisa Sani, and Fabrizio Martelli  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 51, Issue 30, pp. 7176-7182 (2012)

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Intralipid 20% was recently suggested as a diffusive reference standard for tissue simulating phantoms. In this work, we extend previously obtained results to other fat emulsions, specifically Intralipid 10%, Intralipid 30%, Lipovenoes 10%, Lipovenoes 10% PhosphoLipid Reduced, Lipovenoes 20%, Lipofundin S 10%, and Lipofundin S 20%. Of particular importance for practical applications, our measurements carried out at a wavelength of 751 nm show the following features. First, these products show high stability and small batch-to-batch variations in their diffusive optical properties, similar to Intralipid 20%. Second, the absorption coefficient of Intralipid, Lipovenoes, and Lipofundin S are very similar and their measured values are within the experimental errors; moreover the reduced scattering coefficient of Intralipid 20%, Lipovenoes 20%, and Lipofundin S 20% are similar and their measured values are within 5%. Third, the reduced scattering coefficient of Intralipid 10% and Intralipid 30% can be scaled from that of Intralipid 20% with an error of 9% and 2%, respectively. A similar scaling property is valid for Lipovenoes and Lipofundin S. We have verified that this scaling property depends on the composition of the fat emulsions: If the ingredients exactly scale with the concentration then the reduced scattering coefficient almost exactly scale as well.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.4670) Materials : Optical materials
(160.4760) Materials : Optical properties
(170.3660) Medical optics and biotechnology : Light propagation in tissues
(170.6510) Medical optics and biotechnology : Spectroscopy, tissue diagnostics
(170.7050) Medical optics and biotechnology : Turbid media
(160.1435) Materials : Biomaterials

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

Original Manuscript: May 30, 2012
Revised Manuscript: August 10, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: September 12, 2012
Published: October 11, 2012

Paola Di Ninni, Yves Bérubé-Lauzière, Luca Mercatelli, Elisa Sani, and Fabrizio Martelli, "Fat emulsions as diffusive reference standards for tissue simulating phantoms?," Appl. Opt. 51, 7176-7182 (2012)

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  1. P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Intralipid: towards a diffusive reference standard for optical tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56, N21-N28 (2011). [CrossRef]
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  7. S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510–519 (1992). [CrossRef]
  8. P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Effect of dependent scattering on the optical properties of Intralipid tissue phantoms,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2265–2278 (2011). [CrossRef]
  9. G. Zaccanti, S. Del Bianco, and F. Martelli, “Measurements of optical properties of high density media,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4023–4030 (2003). [CrossRef]
  10. F. Martelli and G. Zaccanti, “Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. CW method,” Opt. Express 15, 486–500 (2007). [CrossRef]

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