OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 51, Iss. 35 — Dec. 10, 2012
  • pp: 8481–8489

Effects of substrate temperatures and deposition rates on properties of aluminum fluoride thin films in deep-ultraviolet region

Jian Sun, Xu Li, Weili Zhang, Kui Yi, and Jianda Shao  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 51, Issue 35, pp. 8481-8489 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.51.008481


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1817 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Aluminum fluoride (AlF3) is a low-refractive-index material widely used in coatings for deep-ultraviolet (DUV) optical systems, especially 193 nm laser systems. Low optical loss and stability are essential for film application. In this study, AlF3 thin films were prepared by thermal evaporation with a resistive heating boat. The effects of substrate temperatures and deposition rates on the optical properties in vacuum and in air, composition, and microstructures were discussed respectively. In vacuum the deposition parameters directly influenced the microstructures that determined the refractive index. When the films were exposed to air, aluminum oxide (Al2O3) formed in the films with water adsorption. Thus the refractive index increased and a nonmonotonic changing trend of the refractive index with substrate temperature was observed. The Al2O3 was also found to be conductive to reducing absorption loss. AlF3 films prepared at a high substrate temperature and deposition rate could yield stable structures with large optical loss.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(310.3840) Thin films : Materials and process characterization
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties
(310.4925) Thin films : Other properties (stress, chemical, etc.)

ToC Category:
Thin Films

History
Original Manuscript: July 11, 2012
Revised Manuscript: November 10, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: November 14, 2012
Published: December 10, 2012

Citation
Jian Sun, Xu Li, Weili Zhang, Kui Yi, and Jianda Shao, "Effects of substrate temperatures and deposition rates on properties of aluminum fluoride thin films in deep-ultraviolet region," Appl. Opt. 51, 8481-8489 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-51-35-8481


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. H. Blaschke, J. Kohlhaas, P. Kadkhoda, and D. Ristau, “DUV/VUV spectrophotometry for high precision spectral characterization,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 536–543 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. C. Zaczek, S. Mullender, H. Enkisch, and F. Bijkerk, “Coatings for next generation lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010X (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. C. R. Xue, K. Yi, C. Y. Wei, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Optical constants of DUV/UV fluoride thin films,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 7, 449–451 (2009). [CrossRef]
  4. C. C. Lee, M. C. Liu, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Characterization of AlF3 thin films at 193 nm by thermal evaporation,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7333–7338 (2005). [CrossRef]
  5. W. Heitmann, “Vacuum evaporated films of aluminum fluoride,” Thin Solid Films 5, 61–67 (1970). [CrossRef]
  6. H. L. Chen, J. C. Hsu, P. W. Wang, Y. H. Lin, K. T. Wu, and C. R. Liu, “AlF3 film deposited by IAD with end-Hall ion source using SF6 as working gas,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 1232–1235 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. C. C. Lee, B. H. Liao, and M. C. Liu, “Developing new manufacturing methods for the improvement of AlF3 thin films,” Opt. Express 16, 6904–6909 (2008). [CrossRef]
  8. C. C. Lee, B. H. Liao, and M. C. Liu, “AlF3 thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering with Al target,” Opt. Express 15, 9152–9156 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. J. D. Targove, B. G. Bovard, L. J. Lingg, and H. A. Macleod, “Densification of aluminum fluoride thin-films by ion-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 159, L57–L59 (1988). [CrossRef]
  10. F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, C. K. Carniglia, T. T. Hart, and T. L. Lichtenstein, “Materials for optical coatings in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 24, 496–500 (1985). [CrossRef]
  11. D. Ristau, S. Gunster, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, J. Ferre-Borrull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. Tikhonravov, “Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3196–3204 (2002). [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Taki, “Film structure and optical constants of magnetron-sputtered fluoride films for deep ultraviolet lithography,” Vacuum 74, 431–435 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 16, 1214–1222 (1983). [CrossRef]
  14. C. D. Wagner, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectroscopy(Perkin-Elmer, 1979).
  15. G. M. Hale and M. R. Querry, “Optical-constants of water in 200 nm to 200 μm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1973). [CrossRef]
  16. R. Breakspe, “High-temperature oxidation of aluminium in various gases,” J. App. Chem. 20, 208–212 (1970). [CrossRef]
  17. E. Vohringer-Martinez, B. Hansmann, H. Hernandez, J. S. Francisco, J. Troe, and B. Abel, “Water catalysis of a radical-molecule gas-phase reaction,” Science 315, 497–501 (2007). [CrossRef]
  18. R. J. Buszek, J. R. Barker, and J. S. Francisco, “Water effect on the OH plus HCl reaction,” J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 4712–4719 (2012). [CrossRef]
  19. C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, B. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, “Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027–5029 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. S. Niisaka, T. Saito, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, M. Otani, R. Biro, C. Ouchi, M. Hasegawa, Y. Suzuki, and K. Sone, “Development of optical coatings for 157 nm lithography. I. Coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3242–3247(2002). [CrossRef]
  21. C. M. Kennemore and U. J. Gibson, “Ion-beam processing for coating MgF2 onto ambient-temperature substrates,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3608–3611 (1984). [CrossRef]
  22. B. A. Movchan and A. Demchish, “Study of structure and properties of thick vacuum condensates of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminium oxide and zirconium dioxide,” Phys. Metals Metallography 28, 653–660 (1969).
  23. U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, “Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 280, 5–15 (1996). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited