OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 51, Iss. 7 — Mar. 1, 2012
  • pp: 861–872

Comparison of the squared binary, sinusoidal pulse width modulation, and optimal pulse width modulation methods for three-dimensional shape measurement with projector defocusing

Yajun Wang and Song Zhang  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 51, Issue 7, pp. 861-872 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1128 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



This paper presents a comparative study on three sinusoidal fringe pattern generation techniques with projector defocusing: the squared binary defocusing method (SBM), the sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) technique, and the optimal pulse width modulation (OPWM) technique. Because the phase error will directly affect the measurement accuracy, the comparisons are all performed in the phase domain. We found that the OPWM almost always performs the best, and SPWM outperforms SBM to a great extent, while these three methods generate similar results under certain conditions. We will briefly explain the principle of each technique, describe the optimization procedures for each technique, and finally compare their performances through simulations and experiments.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(100.5070) Image processing : Phase retrieval
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
(120.2650) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Fringe analysis

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

Original Manuscript: August 22, 2011
Revised Manuscript: November 7, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: November 9, 2011
Published: February 24, 2012

Yajun Wang and Song Zhang, "Comparison of the squared binary, sinusoidal pulse width modulation, and optimal pulse width modulation methods for three-dimensional shape measurement with projector defocusing," Appl. Opt. 51, 861-872 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. S. Gorthi and P. Rastogi, “Fringe projection techniques: Whither we are?” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 133–140 (2010). [CrossRef]
  2. X. Su and Q. Zhang, “Dynamic 3D shape measurement method: A review,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 191–204 (2010). [CrossRef]
  3. Q. Zhang and X. Su, “High-speed optical measurement for the drumhead vibration,” Opt. Express 13, 3110–3116(2005). [CrossRef]
  4. C. Zhang, P. S. Huang, and F.-P. Chiang, “Microscopic phase-shifting profilometry based on digital micromirror device technology,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5896–5904 (2002). [CrossRef]
  5. B. Pan, Q. Kemao, L. Huang, and A. Asundi, “Phase error analysis and compensation for nonsinusoidal waveforms in phase-shifting digital fringe projection profilometry,” Opt. Lett. 34, 416–418 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. H. Guo, H. He, and M. Chen, “Gamma correction for digital fringe projection profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2906–2914 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Zhang and P. S. Huang, “Phase error compensation for a three-dimensional shape measurement system based on the phase shifting method,” Opt. Eng. 46, 063601 (2007).
  8. K. Liu, Y. Wang, D. L. Lau, Q. Hao, and L. G. Hassebrook, “Gamma model and its analysis for phase measuring profilometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 553–562 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Zhang and S.-T. Yau, “Generic nonsinusoidal phase error correction for three-dimensional shape measurement using a digital video projector,” Appl. Opt. 46, 36–43 (2007). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Lei and S. Zhang, “Flexible 3-D shape measurement using projector defocusing,” Opt. Lett. 34 (20), 3080–3082 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. G. A. Ajubi, J. A. Ayubi, J. M. D. Martino, and J. A. Ferrari, “Pulse-width modulation in defocused 3-D fringe projection,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3682–3684 (2010). [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Wang and S. Zhang, “Optimum pulse width modulation for 3-D shape measurement with projector defocusing,” Opt. Lett. 35, 4121–4123 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. D. Malacara, ed., Optical Shop Testing, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2007).
  14. Y. Xu, L. Ekstrand, J. Dai, and S. Zhang, “Phase error compensation for 3-D shape measurement with projector defocusing,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2572–2581 (2011). [CrossRef]
  15. V. G. Agelidis, A. Balouktsis, and I. Balouktsis, “On applying a minimization technique to the harmonic elimination PWM control: The bipolar waveform,” IEEE Power Electron. Lett. 2, 41–44 (2004).
  16. J. N. Chiasson, L. M. Tolbert, K. J. Mckenzie, and Z. Du, “A complete solution to the harmonics elimination problem,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 19, 491–499 (2004). [CrossRef]
  17. S. Zhang, “High-resolution 3-D profilometry with binary phase-shifting methods,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1753–1757 (2011). [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Wang and S. Zhang, “Optimal pulse width modulation for sinusoidal fringe generation with projector defocusing: Reply to comments,” Opt. Lett. 36, 809(2011). [CrossRef]
  19. S. Zhang, D. van der Weide, and J. Olvier, “Superfast phase-shifting method for 3-D shape measurement,” Opt. Express 18, 9684–9689 (2010). [CrossRef]
  20. S. Zhang, X. Li, and S.-T. Yau, “Multilevel quality-guided phase unwrapping algorithm for real-time 3-D shape reconstruction,” Appl. Opt. 46, 50–57 (2007). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited