OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 51, Iss. 7 — Mar. 1, 2012
  • pp: 927–935

Origin of particles during reactive sputtering of oxides using planar and cylindrical magnetrons

Daniel Rademacher, Benjamin Fritz, and Michael Vergöhl  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 51, Issue 7, pp. 927-935 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.51.000927


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (961 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Particles generated during reactive magnetron sputtering cause defects in optical thin films, which may lead to losses in optical performance, pinholes, loss of adhesion, decreased laser-induced damage thresholds and many more negative effects. Therefore, it is important to reduce the particle contamination during the manufacturing process. In the present paper, the origin of particles during the deposition of various oxide films by midfrequency pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering was investigated. Several steps have been undertaken to decrease the particle contamination during the complete substrate handling procedure. It was found that conditioning of the vacuum chamber can help to decrease the defect level significantly. This level remains low for several hours of sputtering and increases after 100 hours of process time. Particle densities of SiO2 films deposited with cylindrical and planar dual magnetrons at different process parameters as well as different positions underneath the target were compared. It was observed that the process power influences the particle density significantly in case of planar targets while cylindrical targets have no such strong dependence. In addition, the particle contamination caused by different cylindrical target materials was analyzed. No major differences in particle contamination of different cylindrical target types and materials were found.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(310.1860) Thin films : Deposition and fabrication
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties
(310.4925) Thin films : Other properties (stress, chemical, etc.)

ToC Category:
Thin Films

History
Original Manuscript: August 29, 2011
Revised Manuscript: October 31, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: November 2, 2011
Published: February 28, 2012

Citation
Daniel Rademacher, Benjamin Fritz, and Michael Vergöhl, "Origin of particles during reactive sputtering of oxides using planar and cylindrical magnetrons," Appl. Opt. 51, 927-935 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-51-7-927


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. J. Strobel and R. M. Hohl, “Cleaning of parts for precision-optic and glass substrates before coating,” in Proceedings of the 46th Annual Technical Conference (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2003), pp. 359–364.
  2. F. Sequeda and G. S. Selwyn, “In situ analysis of particle contamination in magnetron sputtering process during magnetic media manufacturing,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2001), pp. 29–34.
  3. P. Borden and J. Mason, “Monitoring particles in sputter coaters,” Proceedings of the 34th Annual Technical Conference (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1991), pp. 365–371.
  4. M. Vergöhl, C. Rickers, U. Kricheldorf, K. Schiffmann, and P. Giesel, “Deposition of multilayer optical films and Rugate filters deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering,” in Proceedings of the 49th Annual Technical Conference (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2006), Vol. 49, pp. 265–270.
  5. M. Vergöhl, O. Werner, and S. Bruns, “New developments in magnetron sputter processes for precision optics,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010B (2008). [CrossRef]
  6. B. Szyszka, T. Höing, X. Jiang, A. Bierhals, N. Malkomes, M. Vergöhl, V. Sittinger, U. Bringmann, and G. Bräuer, “Large area deposition of transparent and conductive ZnO:Al layers by reactive mid frequency magnetron sputtering,” in Proceedings of the 34th Annual Technical Conference (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2001), pp. 272–276.
  7. C. Buzea and K. Robbie, “State of the art in thin film thickness and deposition rate monitoring sensors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 385–409 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. R. J. Hill and F. Jansen, “The use of ac power on cylindrical magnetrons: coatings on glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 35–37 (1997). [CrossRef]
  9. R. J. Hill, S. Nadel, and P. Petrach, “Large area deposition by mid-frequency AC sputtering,” in Proceedings of the 41st Annual Technical Conference (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1998), pp. 197–202.
  10. W. Bosscher, D. Cnockaert, and H. Lievens, “Advances in cylindrical magnetrons,” in Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Technical Conference (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1999), pp. 156–162.
  11. K. Koski, J. Hölsä, and P. Juliet, “Surface defects and arc generation in reactive magnetron sputtering of aluminium oxide thin films,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 115, 163–171 (1999). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Anders, “Physics of arcing, and implications to sputter deposition,” in Selected Papers from the 5th International Conference on Coatings on Glass (ICCG5)—Advanced Coatings on Glass and Plastics for Large-Area or High-Volume Products, ICCG-5 (ICCG Association, 2006), pp. 22–28.
  13. S. Schiller, K. Goedicke, J. Reschke, V. Kirchhoff, S. Schneider, and F. Milde, “Pulsed magnetron sputter technology,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 61, 331–337 (1993). [CrossRef]
  14. G. Bräuer, J. Szczyrbowski, and G. P. Teschner, “New approaches for reactive sputtering of dielectric materials on large scale substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 19–24 (1997). [CrossRef]
  15. P. J. Kelly and R. D. Arnell, “Magnetron sputtering: a review of recent developments and applications,” Vacuum 56(3), 159–172 (2000). [CrossRef]
  16. P. J. Kelly, T. Vom Braucke, Z. Liu, R. D. Arnell, and E. D. Doyle, “Pulsed magnetron sputtered titanium nitride coatings for improved tribological performance and tool life,” in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Technical Conference (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2007), pp. 596–601.
  17. M. Vergoehl, P. Frach, H. Bartzsch, A. Pflug, and C. Rickers, “Process technology, applications and potentials of magnetron sputtering technology for optical coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings (Optical Society of America, 2007), MA3.
  18. G. S. Selwyn, C. A. Weiss, F. Sequeda, and C. Huang, “In-situ analysis of particle contamination in magnetron sputtering processes,” Thin Solid Films 317, 85–92 (1998). [CrossRef]
  19. H. Miyashita, T. Kikuchi, Y. Kawasaki, Y. Katakura, and N. Ohsako, “Particle measurements in vacuum tools by in situ particle monitor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1066–1070 (1999). [CrossRef]
  20. M. Abràmoff, P. Magalhães, and S. Ram, “Image processing with ImageJ,” Biophotonics Int. 11(7), 36–42 (2004). [CrossRef]
  21. W. S. Rasband, “ImageJ,” http://imagej.nih.gov/ij/ , 1997–2011.
  22. S. Berg and T. Nyberg, “Fundamental understanding and modeling of reactive sputtering processes,” Thin Solid Films 476, 215–230 (2005). [CrossRef]
  23. J. Musil, P. Baroch, J. Vlcek, K. H. Nam, and J. G. Han, “Reactive magnetron sputtering of thin films: present status and trends,” Thin Solid Films 475, 208–218 (2005). [CrossRef]
  24. I. Safi, “Recent aspects concerning DC reactive magnetron sputtering of thin films: a review,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 127, 203–218 (2000). [CrossRef]
  25. N. Malkomes and M. Vergöhl, “Dynamic simulation of process control of the reactive sputter process and experimental results,” J. Appl. Phys. 127, 1–8 (2001).
  26. C. E. J. Wickersham, J. E. Poole, and J. S. Fan, “Arc generation from sputtering plasma-dielectric inclusion interactions,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 833–838 (2002). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited