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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 52, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 2013
  • pp: 9–19

50 years of optics research [Invited]

Johannes Schwider  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 52, Issue 1, pp. 9-19 (2013)

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The 50-year life span of Applied Optics covers also approximately the time I have been engaged in optics. I started in 1962 [1] with the Institute for Optics and Spectroscopy, which was one of several Academy Institutes (mission statement: “theoria cum praxi,” G. Leibniz) located in Berlin-Adlershof on the area of the first airfield in Berlin dating back to the beginning of the 20th century.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(090.0090) Holography : Holography
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
(200.0200) Optics in computing : Optics in computing
(220.1250) Optical design and fabrication : Aspherics
(260.3160) Physical optics : Interference

Original Manuscript: August 31, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: October 9, 2012
Published: December 21, 2012

Virtual Issues
(2013) Advances in Optics and Photonics

Johannes Schwider, "50 years of optics research [Invited]," Appl. Opt. 52, 9-19 (2013)

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  1. The political situation was still dominated by the construction of the wall five months before. The rage of the workforce about the wall was enormous, because after the war it was not uncommon that a few scientists from West Berlin would be working in the academy institutes, which meant access to the developments in the world. Even after the wall had been built, one scientist was allowed to finish his Ph.D. thesis. Compared with the GDR as a whole, the oppression through the party was relatively moderate in East Berlin, so the loss of the contact to the life possible in West Berlin was for the Berliner colleagues a tremendous shock. One indication for the special conditions with the academy was the free access to Applied Optics and other journals from the west.
  2. G. Schulz and J. Schwider, “Precise measurement of planeness,” Appl. Opt. 6, 1077–1084 (1967). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Schwider, G. Schulz, R. Riekher, and G. Minkwitz, “Ein Interferenzverfahren zur Absolutprüfung von Planflächennormalen I,” Opt. Acta 13, 103–119 (1966).
  4. J. Schwider, “Informationssteigerung in der Vielstrahlinterferometrie,” Opt. Acta 15, 351–372 (1968). [CrossRef]
  5. G. Schulz and J. Schwider, “Interferometric testing of smooth surfaces,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1976), Vol. XIII, pp. 93–137.
  6. The subject of aspherics was classified because of its economic relevance. Therefore, publications on aspheric testing were possible only in a concealed manner [7].
  7. J. Schwider and R. Burow, “Testing of aspherics by means of rotational-symmetric synthetic holograms,” Opt. Appl. 6, 83–88 (1976).
  8. J. Schwider and R. Burow, “The use of rotational-symmetric holograms in optical testing,” in Proceedings of the Tenth Conference of the International Commission for Optics (Palacký University, 1976), pp. 471–485.
  9. J. Schwider, “Interferometrische Messung der Amplitudenpunktbildfunktion und der Varianz von Wellenflächen,” Opt. Acta 23, 115–127 (1976).
  10. At first sight, it is surprising that the phase shall be measured by changing the (arbitrary reference) phase, but the technique is a special type of a heterodyne interferometry only.
  11. J. H. Bruning, D. R. Herriott, J. E. Gallagher, D. P. Rosenfeld, A. D. White, and D. J. Brangaccio, “Digital wavefront measuring interferometer for testing optical surfaces and lenses,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2693–2703 (1974). [CrossRef]
  12. A 64×64 photodiode array of an English company had been ordered, but it turned out that the array had a shunt fault. A damage claim could not be placed because of the Cold War circumstances, which meant we had to use a self-made hybrid array.
  13. J. Schwider, R. Burow, K.-E. Elssner, J. Grzanna, and R. Spolaczyk, “Digital wave-front measuring interferometry: some systematic error sources,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3421–3432 (1983). [CrossRef]
  14. J. Schwider, “Advanced evaluation techniques in interferometry,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1990), Vol. XXVIII, pp. 271–359.
  15. J. Schwider, R. Burow, K.-E. Elssner, J. Grzanna, and R. Spolaczyk, “Homogeneity testing by phase sampling interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3059–3061 (1985). [CrossRef]
  16. J. Schwider, R. Burow, K.-E. Elssner, J. Grzanna, and R. Spolaczyk, “Semiconductor wafer and technical flat planeness testing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1117–1121 (1986). [CrossRef]
  17. After the seclusion in East Berlin, it has been a great experience to work in an open environment with generous support by the scientific founding organizations, which allowed for free access to international conferences and colleagues working in related fields.
  18. E. Gluch, H. Kobolla, K. Zürl, N. Streibl, and J. Schwider, “Demonstration for an optoelectronic switching network,” J. Mod. Opt 40, 1857–1869 (1993). [CrossRef]
  19. J. Schwider, and O. Falkenstorfer, “Twyman-Green interferometer for testing microspheres,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2972–2975 (1995). [CrossRef]
  20. H. Sickinger, J. Schwider, and B. Manzke, “Fiber based Mach–Zehnder interferometer for measuring wave aberrations of micro-lenses,” Optik 110, 239–240 (1999).
  21. Lens arrays using this technology are available; see www.suss-microoptics.com .
  22. The change in the scientific orientation in 1994 coincided with the appointment of G. Leuchs as new chair holder for Optics.
  23. J. Pfund, N. Lindlein, and J. Schwider, “Dynamic range expansion of a Shack–Hartmann sensor by use of a modified unwrapping algorithm,” Opt. Lett. 23, 995–997 (1998). [CrossRef]
  24. Other authors following this idea called it spectral interferometry and the idea is extensively used in OCT and technical applications.
  25. J. Schwider and L. Zhou, “Dispersive interferometric profilometer,” Opt. Lett. 19, 995–997 (1994). [CrossRef]
  26. A. Pfoertner and J. Schwider, “Red-green-blue interferometer for the metrology of discontinuous structures,” Appl. Opt. 42, 667–673 (2003). [CrossRef]
  27. J. Schwider, “Verfahren und Anordnung zur Prüfung beliebiger Mantelflächen rotations-symmetrischer Festkörper mittels synthetischer Hologramme,” German patent DDR WP 106 769 (4Jan.1972).
  28. R. Schreiner, N. Lindlein, T. Dresel, J. Schwider, S. Brinkmann, and H. Mischo, “Testing acylindrical micro-lenses at grazing incidence,” Optik 111, 397–406(2000).
  29. T. Dresel, S. Brinkmann, R. Schreiner, and J. Schwider, “Testing of rod objects by grazing incidence interferometry: theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2921–2928 (1998). [CrossRef]
  30. S. Brinkmann, T. Dresel, R. Schreiner, and J. Schwider, “Testing of rod objects by grazing-incidence interferometry: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 38, 121–125 (1999). [CrossRef]
  31. J. Lamprecht, N. Lindlein, and J. Schwider, “Characterization of cylindrical micro-lenses in transmitted light and with grazing incidence interferometry in reflected light,” Proc. SPIE 6188, 618816 (2006). [CrossRef]
  32. J. Schwider, “Interferometric tests for aspherics,” in Fabrication and Testing of Aspheres, J. S. Taylor, M. Piscotty, and A. Lindquist, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 103–114.
  33. G. S. Khan, K. Mantel, I. Harder, N. Lindlein, and J. Schwider, “Design considerations for the absolute testing approach of aspherics using combined diffractive optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7040–7048 (2007). [CrossRef]
  34. J. Schwider, “Fizeau-type multi-pass Shack-Hartmann-test,” Opt. Express 16, 362–372 (2008). [CrossRef]
  35. J. Schwider, “Multiple beam Fizeau interferometer with frequency comb illumination,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3308–3324 (2009). [CrossRef]
  36. I. Harder, G. Leuchs, K. Mantel, and J. Schwider, “Adaptive frequency comb illumination for interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4942–4956 (2011). [CrossRef]
  37. V. Nercissian, I. Harder, K. Mantel, A. Berger, G. Leuchs, N. Lindlein, and J. Schwider, “Diffractive simultaneous bidirectional shearing interferometry using tailored spatially coherent light,” Appl. Opt. 50, 571–578 (2011). [CrossRef]
  38. Further information can be obtained from: ( http://www.optik.uni-erlangen.de/odem/js_guestbook/index.html ).

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