## Improvement of range accuracy of photon counting chirped AM ladar using phase postprocessing |

Applied Optics, Vol. 52, Issue 11, pp. 2447-2453 (2013)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.52.002447

Enhanced HTML Acrobat PDF (775 KB)

### Abstract

The photon counting detection of Geiger mode avalanche photodiode is discrete due to its dead time, therefore the intermediate frequency (IF) spectrum is also discrete after the mixing and fast Fourier transform processing. When the peak of the IF spectrum is in the interval of the discrete IF spectrum, it limits the range accuracy without obtaining the exact position of the desired target in the interval. In this paper, the phase postprocessing method is proposed, which extracts not only the frequency of the IF signal, but also the phase of the IF signal that was not exploited before. The theoretical analysis demonstrates significant improvements in the range accuracy of the ladar and the simulation verifies the validity of the method.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

**OCIS Codes**

(030.5260) Coherence and statistical optics : Photon counting

(280.3400) Remote sensing and sensors : Laser range finder

(320.1590) Ultrafast optics : Chirping

(040.1345) Detectors : Avalanche photodiodes (APDs)

**ToC Category:**

Detectors

**History**

Original Manuscript: January 23, 2013

Manuscript Accepted: February 27, 2013

Published: April 10, 2013

**Citation**

Zijing Zhang, Yuan Zhao, Yong Zhang, Long Wu, and Jianzhong Su, "Improvement of range accuracy of photon counting chirped AM ladar using phase postprocessing," Appl. Opt. **52**, 2447-2453 (2013)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-52-11-2447

Sort: Year | Journal | Reset

### References

- B. L. Stann, A. Abou-Auf, K. Aliberti, J. Dammann, M. Giza, G. Dang, G. Ovrebo, B. Redman, W. Ruff, and D. Simon, “Research progress on a focal plane array ladar system using chirped amplitude modulation,” Proc. SPIE 5086, 47–57 (2003). [CrossRef]
- B. L. Stann, W. C. Ruff, and Z. G. Sztankay, “Intensity-modulated diode laser radar using frequency modulation/continuous wave ranging techniques,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3270–3278 (1996). [CrossRef]
- W. Ruff, K. Aliberti, M. Giza, W. Potter, B. Redman, and B. Stann, “Translational Doppler detection using a direct-detection chirp amplitude modulated laser radar,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 43, 358–363 (2004). [CrossRef]
- M. Ren, X. R. Gu, Y. Liang, W. B. Kong, E. Wu, G. Wu, and H. P. Zeng, “Laser ranging at 1550 nm with 1 GHz sine-wave gated InGaAs/InP APD single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 19, 13497–13502 (2011). [CrossRef]
- P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, X. G. Bai, J. Boisvert, P. McDonald, and E. Labios, “Geiger-mode LADAR cameras,” Proc. SPIE 8037, 803712 (2011). [CrossRef]
- G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, J. Model, and A. Geboff, “Deep UV photon-counting detectors and applications,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200J (2009). [CrossRef]
- H. J. Kong, T. H. Kim, S. E. Jo, and M. S. Oh, “Smart three-dimensional imaging ladar using two Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Express 19, 19323–19329 (2011). [CrossRef]
- A. Stern, D. Alonia, and B. Javidib, “An overview of 3D visualization with integral imaging in photon starved conditions,” Proc. SPIE 8384, 83840K (2012). [CrossRef]
- B. Redman, W. Ruff, and M. Giza, “Photon counting chirped AM Ladar: concept, simulation, and initial experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6214, 62140P (2006). [CrossRef]
- F. Yang, Y. He, J. H. Shang, and W. B. Chen, “Experimental study on the 1550 nm all fiber heterodyne laser range finder,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6575–6582 (2009). [CrossRef]
- Z. W. Barber, W. R. Babbitt, B. Kaylor, R. R. Reibel, and P. A. Roos, “Accuracy of active chirp linearization for broadband frequency modulated continuous wave ladar,” Appl. Opt. 49, 213–219 (2010). [CrossRef]
- B. G. Quinn, “Estimating frequency by interpolation using Fourier coefficients,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 42, 1264–1268 (1994). [CrossRef]
- A. Choi, “Real-time fundamental frequency estimation by least-square fitting,” IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Process. 5, 201–205 (1997). [CrossRef]
- T. J. Abatzoglou, “A fast maximum likelihood algorithm for frequency estimation of a sinusoid based on Newton’s method,” IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 33, 77–89 (1985). [CrossRef]
- C. J. Karlsson and F. Å. A. Olsson, “Linearization of the frequency sweep of a frequency-modulated continuous-wave semiconductor laser radar and the resulting ranging performance,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3376–3385 (1999). [CrossRef]
- L. E. Drain, The Laser Doppler Technique (Wiley, 1980), p. 146.

## Cited By |
Alert me when this paper is cited |

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article | Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.