OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 52, Iss. 11 — Apr. 10, 2013
  • pp: 2478–2483

Wavelength evolution of long-period fiber gratings in a water environment

Qiang Zhao, Yi Qu, Yong-Jie Wang, and Fang Li  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 52, Issue 11, pp. 2478-2483 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (687 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



In a water environment, wavelength evolution behavior of long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) written in H2-loaded fibers after annealing is studied. The phenomena that wavelength shifts in the longer wavelength direction and then in the shorter wavelength direction is observed. A shift of the grating resonance peak (LP05) of as much as 2.5 nm is found. A water-mediated model that water molecules induce the second diffusion of the remaining H2 in the fiber and a diffusion-reaction mechanism that water molecules penetrate into fiber internal structures are proposed and are combined to explain the wavelength evolution process. Both the calculated balance point time according to the model, and the qualitative analysis according to the mechanism, correspond well with the experimental results. This research indicates that wavelength variation has to be considered or prevented when H2-loaded LPFGs are used in a water environment.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2270) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber characterization
(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

Original Manuscript: November 15, 2012
Revised Manuscript: February 24, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: March 4, 2013
Published: April 10, 2013

Qiang Zhao, Yi Qu, Yong-Jie Wang, and Fang Li, "Wavelength evolution of long-period fiber gratings in a water environment," Appl. Opt. 52, 2478-2483 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996). [CrossRef]
  2. H. Sakata, Y. Takata, and S. Suzuki, “Single-channel bandpass filter based on vernier-aligned long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1661–1663 (2007). [CrossRef]
  3. V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21, 692–694 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. H. Jung, W. Shin, J. K. Kim, S. H. Park, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, and K. Oh, “Bending and strain sensitivities in a helicoidal long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1232–1234 (2009). [CrossRef]
  5. S. Kher, S. Chaubey, R. Kashyap, and S. M. Oak, “Turnaround-point long-period fiber gratings (TAP-LPGs) as high-radiation-dose sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 742–744 (2012). [CrossRef]
  6. F. J. Akki, A. S. Lalasangi, K. G. Manohar, P. Raikar, T. Srinivas, and U. S. Raikar, “Detection and determination of manganese concentration in water using a fiber Bragg grating coupled with nanotechnology,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6033–6038 (2011). [CrossRef]
  7. L. H. Olivier, A. Zohrabyan, and T. Galstian, “Development of fiber long period gratings for biological sensor applications,” Proc. SPIE 7099, 70990P (2008). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Smietana, “Detection of bacteria using bacteriophages as recognition elements immobilized on long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Express 19, 7971–7978 (2011). [CrossRef]
  9. L. Marrec, T. Bowgerette, E. Dahn, N. Ferchaud, B. Pucel, L. Quetel, C. Renault, and D. Tregoat, “In-situ optical fibre sensors for temperature and salinity monitoring,” Oceans 2005-Europe (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1276–1278.
  10. K. Wang, D. Klimov, and Z. Kolber, “Seawater pH sensor based on the long period grating in a single-mode–multimode–single-mode structure,” Opt. Eng. 48, 344011 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. X. R. Li, Y. Q. Li, and Z. Y. Wen, “300 m optic fiber Bragg grating temperature sensing system for seawater measurement,” in 3rd International Photonics & OptoElectronics Meetings (POEM 2010) (IOP Publishing, 2011), Vol. 276, p. 012130.
  12. B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, H. L. W. Chan, C. L. Choy, and M. S. Demokan, “Growth characteristics of long-period gratings in hydrogen-loaded fiber during and after 193 nm UV inscription,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 818–823 (2001). [CrossRef]
  13. K. Fujita, Y. Masuda, K. Nakayama, M. Ando, K. Sakamoto, J. Mohri, M. Yamauchi, M. Kimura, Y. Mizutani, S. Kimura, T. Yokouchi, Y. Suzaki, and S. Ejima, “Dynamic evolution of the spectrum of long-period fiber Bragg gratings fabricated from hydrogen-loaded optical fiber by ultraviolet laser irradiation,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7032–7038 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, S. Y. Liu, and X. Y. Dong, “Growth of long-period fiber gratings in H2-loaded fiber after 193 nm UV inscription,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 642–644 (2000). [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Masuda, M. Nakamura, C. Komatsu, K. Fujita, M. Yamauchi, M. Kimura, Y. Mizutani, S. Kimura, Y. Suzaki, T. Yokouchi, and K. Nakagawa, “Wavelength evolution of fiber Bragg gratings fabricated from hydrogen-loaded optical fiber during annealing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 934–941 (2004). [CrossRef]
  16. E. Abdi, A. D. Rujinski, M. Poulain, and I. Severin, “Damage of optical fibers under wet environments,” Exp. Mech. 50, 1225–1234 (2010). [CrossRef]
  17. D. Sáez-Rodríguez, J. L. Cruz, I. Johnson, D. J. Webb, M. C. J. Large, and A. Argyros, “Water diffusion into UV inscripted long period grating in microstructured polymer fiber,” IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1169–1173 (2010). [CrossRef]
  18. X. W. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 255–266 (2002). [CrossRef]
  19. T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultraviolet induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 76–80 (1994).
  20. W. J. Stephen and P. T. Ralph, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49–R61 (2003). [CrossRef]
  21. D. L. Philen, “Measurements of OH diffusion in optical-fiber cores,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 61, 283–293 (1982).
  22. M. Tomozawaz, “Water diffusion in silica glass and wet oxidation of Si: an interpretation for the high speed of wet oxidation,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158, G115–G118 (2011). [CrossRef]
  23. L. R. Merte, G. W. Peng, R. Bechstein, F. Rieboldt, C. A. Farberow, L. C. Grabow, W. Kudernatsch, S. Wendt, E. Lægsgaard, M. Mavrikakis, and F. Besenbacher, “Water-mediated proton hopping on an iron oxide surface,” Science 336, 889–893 (2012). [CrossRef]
  24. F. Bakhti, J. Larrey, P. Sansonetti, and B. Poumellec, “Impact of hydrogen in-fiber and out-fiber diffusion on central wavelength of UV-written long period grating,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 55–57.
  25. Y. Liu, L. Zhang, W. Zhang, and J. A. R. Williams, “Investigation of H2 in- and out-diffusion impact on long-period grating devices,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, 1999), pp. 197–296.
  26. P. J. Lemaire, “Reliability of optical fibers exposed to hydrogen: prediction of long-term loss increases,” Opt. Eng. 30, 780–789 (1991). [CrossRef]
  27. K. M. Davis and M. Tomozawa, “Water diffusion into silica glass: structural changes in silica glass and their effect on water solubility and diffusivity,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 185, 203–220 (1995). [CrossRef]
  28. R. H. Doremus, in Reactivity of Solids, J. W. Mitchell, R. C. DeVries, R. W. Roberts, and P. Cannon, eds. (Wiley, 1969), pp. 667–673.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited