Three recipes are presented to make tissue constituent-equivalent phantoms of water and lipids. Different approaches to prepare the emulsion are proposed. Nature phantoms are made using no emulsifying agent, but just a professional disperser; instead Agar and Triton phantoms are made using agar or Triton X-100, respectively, as agents to emulsify water and lipids. Different water-to-lipid ratios ranging from 30% to 70% by mass were tested. A broadband time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy system was used to characterize the phantoms in terms of optical properties and composition. For some water/lipid ratios the emulsion fails or the phantom has limited lifetime, but in most cases the recipes provide phantoms with a high degree of homogeneity [coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.6% and 1.5% for the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient, respectively] and good reproducibility (CV of 8.3% and 12.4% for absorption and reduced scattering coefficient, respectively).
© 2013 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: December 20, 2012
Revised Manuscript: February 18, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: March 6, 2013
Published: April 10, 2013
Vol. 8, Iss. 5 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics
Giovanna Quarto, Antonio Pifferi, Ilaria Bargigia, Andrea Farina, Rinaldo Cubeddu, and Paola Taroni, "Recipes to make organic phantoms for diffusive optical spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 52, 2494-2502 (2013)