OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 52, Iss. 30 — Oct. 20, 2013
  • pp: 7288–7294

Embedded optical waveguides fabricated in SF10 glass by low-repetition-rate ultrafast laser

Jing Bai, Xuewen Long, Xin Liu, Guangwen Huo, Wei Zhao, Razvan Stoian, Rongqing Hui, and Guanghua Cheng  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 52, Issue 30, pp. 7288-7294 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (526 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Symmetric embedded waveguides were fabricated in heavy metal oxide SF10 glass using slit-shaped infrared femtosecond laser writing in the low-repetition frequency regime. The impact of the writing parameters on the waveguide formation in the transverse writing scheme was systemically studied. Results indicate that efficient waveguides can be inscribed in a wide parameter space ranging from 500 fs to 1.5 ps pulse duration, 0.7–4.2 μJ pulse energy, and 5μm/s to 640μm/s scan speed and pointing out the robustness of the photoinscription process. The refractive index profile reconstructed from the measured near field pattern goes up to 103. In addition, propagation losses of the waveguides are tolerable, with the lowest propagation loss estimated at 0.7dB/cm. With a 5μm/s scan speed and 3.5 μJ pulse energy in a high-dose regime, few-mode guiding was achieved in the waveguide at 800 nm signal injection wavelength. This is due to a combination of increased refractive index in the core of the trace and the appearance of a depressed cladding.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(130.2755) Integrated optics : Glass waveguides

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

Original Manuscript: July 29, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: September 23, 2013
Published: October 16, 2013

Jing Bai, Xuewen Long, Xin Liu, Guangwen Huo, Wei Zhao, Razvan Stoian, Rongqing Hui, and Guanghua Cheng, "Embedded optical waveguides fabricated in SF10 glass by low-repetition-rate ultrafast laser," Appl. Opt. 52, 7288-7294 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996). [CrossRef]
  2. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2, 219–225 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. R. R. Thomson and G. Cerullo, “Ultrafast laser inscription of photonic devices in bulk dielectrics,” in Ultrafast Nonlinear Optics (Springer, 2013), Chap. 13, pp. 323–350.
  4. H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, “Low-loss type II waveguide writing in fused silica with single picosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 14, 4826–4834 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, A. Chahid-Erraji, M. Beresna, and P. Kazansky, “Dependence of the femtosecond laser refractive index change thresholds on the chemical composition of doped-silica glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 711–723 (2011). [CrossRef]
  6. K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, “Nanosize structural modifications with polarization functions in ultrafast laser irradiated bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express 18, 24809–24824 (2010). [CrossRef]
  7. L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, N. Troy, S. T. Reis, R. K. Brow, and D. M. Krol, “Direct femtosecond laser waveguide writing inside zinc phosphate glass,” Opt. Express 19, 7929–7936 (2011). [CrossRef]
  8. R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, “Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Tan, Y. C. Jia, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and D. Jaque, “Simultaneous dual-wavelength lasers at 1064 and 1342 nm in femtosecond-laser-written Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 1607–1610 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. A. Rodenas and A. K. Kar, “High-contrast step-index waveguides in borate nonlinear laser crystals by 3D laser writing,” Opt. Express 19, 17820–17833 (2011). [CrossRef]
  11. D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1587–1589 (2011). [CrossRef]
  12. T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 1–4 (2011). [CrossRef]
  13. L. Kallepalli, V. Soma, and N. Desai, “Femtosecond-laser direct writing in polymers and potential applications in microfluidics and memory devices,” Opt. Eng. 51, 073402 (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcıa-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, “Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Waveguide structures written in SF57 glass with fs-laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4523–4526 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, S. J. Beecher, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription of a high-gain Er-doped bismuthate glass waveguide amplifier,” Opt. Express 18, 13212–13219 (2010). [CrossRef]
  17. M. Ams, G. Marshall, D. Spence, and M. Withford, “Slit beam shaping method for femtosecond laser direct-write fabrication of symmetric waveguides in bulk glasses,” Opt. Express 13, 5676–5681 (2005). [CrossRef]
  18. G. Cheng, K. Mishchik, C. Mauclair, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser photoinscription of polarization sensitive devices in bulk silica glass,” Opt. Express 17, 9515–9525 (2009). [CrossRef]
  19. J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, “Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371–2373 (2003). [CrossRef]
  20. A. Mermillod-Blondin, C. Mauclair, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, I. V. Hertel, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Size correction in ultrafast laser processing of fused silica by temporal pulse shaping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021921 (2008). [CrossRef]
  21. A. H. Nejadmalayeri and P. R. Herman, “Ultrafast laser waveguide writing: lithium niobate and the role of circular polarization and picosecond pulse width,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2987–2989 (2006). [CrossRef]
  22. J. R. Macdonald, R. R. Thomson, S. J. Beecher, N. D. Psaila, H. T. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription of near-infrared waveguides in polycrystalline ZnSe,” Opt. Lett. 35, 4036–4038 (2010). [CrossRef]
  23. F. Caccavale, F. Segato, I. Mansour, and M. Gianesin, “A finite differences method for the reconstruction of refractive index profiles from near-field measurements,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1348–1353 (1998). [CrossRef]
  24. L. Shah, A. Arai, S. Eaton, and P. Herman, “Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 1999–2006 (2005). [CrossRef]
  25. M. Spajer and B. Charquille, “Application of intermodal interference to fiber sensors,” Opt. Commun. 60, 261–264 (1986). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited