OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 52, Iss. 33 — Nov. 20, 2013
  • pp: 8040–8047

Digital camera measurements of soot temperature and soot volume fraction in axisymmetric flames

Haiqing Guo, Jose A. Castillo, and Peter B. Sunderland  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 52, Issue 33, pp. 8040-8047 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (747 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



New diagnostics are presented that use a digital camera to measure full-field soot temperatures and soot volume fractions in axisymmetric flames. The camera is a Nikon D700 with 12 megapixels and 14 bit depth in each color plane, which was modified by removing the infrared and anti-aliasing filters. The diagnostics were calibrated with a blackbody furnace. The flame considered here was an 88 mm long ethylene/air co-flowing laminar jet diffusion flame on a round 11.1 mm burner. The resolution in the flame plane is estimated at between 0.1 and 0.7 mm. Soot temperatures were measured from soot radiative emissions, using ratio pyrometry at 450, 650, and 900 nm following deconvolution. These had a range of 1600–1850 K, a temporal resolution of 125 ms, and an estimated uncertainty of ±50K. Soot volume fractions were measured two ways: from soot radiative emissions and from soot laser extinction at 632.8 nm, both following deconvolution. Soot volume fractions determined from emissions had a range of 0.1–10 ppm, temporal resolutions of 125 ms, and an estimated uncertainty of ±30%. Soot volume fractions determined from laser extinction had a range of 0.2–10 ppm, similar temporal resolutions, and an estimated uncertainty of ±10%. The present measurements agree with past measurements in this flame using traversing optics and probes; however, they avoid the long test times and other complications of such traditional methods.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.1490) Detectors : Cameras
(100.1830) Image processing : Deconvolution
(290.2200) Scattering : Extinction
(290.6815) Scattering : Thermal emission

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

Original Manuscript: July 19, 2013
Revised Manuscript: October 18, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: October 18, 2013
Published: November 15, 2013

Haiqing Guo, Jose A. Castillo, and Peter B. Sunderland, "Digital camera measurements of soot temperature and soot volume fraction in axisymmetric flames," Appl. Opt. 52, 8040-8047 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. B. Sunderland, U. O. Koylu, and G. M. Faeth, “Soot formation in weakly buoyant acetylene-fueled laminar jet diffusion flames burning in air,” Combust. Flame 100, 310–322 (1995). [CrossRef]
  2. P. B. Sunderland and G. M. Faeth, “Soot formation in hydrocarbon/air laminar jet diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame 105, 132–146 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. D. R. Snelling, K. A. Thomson, G. J. Smallwood, O. L. Gulder, E. J. Weckman, and R. A. Fraser, “Spectrally resolved measurement of flame radiation to determine soot temperature and concentration,” AIAA J. 40, 1789–1795 (2002). [CrossRef]
  4. H. I. Joo and O. L. Gulder, “Soot formation and temperature field structure in co-flow laminar methane–air diffusion flames at pressures from 10 to 60 atm,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 769–775 (2009). [CrossRef]
  5. P. M. Mandatori and O. L. Gulder, “Soot formation in laminar ethane diffusion flames at pressures from 0.2 to 3.3 MPa,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 577–584 (2011). [CrossRef]
  6. D. L. Urban, Z.-G. Yuan, P. B. Sunderland, G. T. Linteris, J. E. Voss, K.-C. Lin, Z. Dai, K. Sun, and G. M. Faeth, “Structure and soot properties of nonbuoyant ethylene/air laminar jet diffusion flames,” AIAA J. 36, 1346–1360 (1998). [CrossRef]
  7. F. J. Diez, C. Aalburg, P. B. Sunderland, D. L. Urban, Z.-G. Yuan, and G. M. Faeth, “Soot properties of laminar jet diffusion flames in microgravity,” Combust. Flame 156, 1514–1524 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. B. B. Connelly, S. A. Kaiser, M. D. Smooke, and M. B. Long, “Two-dimensional soot pyrometry with a color digital camera,” Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, March2005.
  9. P. B. Kuhn, B. Ma, B. C. Connelly, M. D. Smooke, and M. B. Long, “Soot and thin-filament pyrometry using a color digital camera,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 743–750 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. T. Fu, X. Cheng, and Z. Yang, “Theoretical evaluation of measurement uncertainties of two-color pyrometry applied to optical diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6112–6123 (2008). [CrossRef]
  11. S. D. Iuliis, M. Barbini, S. Benecchi, F. Cignoli, and G. Zizak, “Determination of the soot volume fraction in an ethylene diffusion flame by multiwavelength analysis of soot radiation,” Combust. Flame 115, 253–261 (1998). [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Matsui, T. Kamimoto, and S. Matsuoka, “A study on the time and space resolved measurement of flame temperature and soot concentration in a D.I. diesel engine by the two-color method,” SAE Technical Paper 790491, 1808–1822, (1979).
  13. R. J. Santoro, H. G. Semerjian, and R. A. Dobbins, “Soot particle measurements in diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame 51, 203–218 (1983). [CrossRef]
  14. R. J. Santoro, T. T. Yeh, J. J. Horvath, and H. G. Semerjian, “The transport and growth of soot particles in laminar diffusion flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 53, 89–115 (1987). [CrossRef]
  15. P. S. Greenberg and J. C. Ku, “Soot volume fraction imaging,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5514–5522 (1997). [CrossRef]
  16. C. P. Arana, M. Pontoni, S. Sen, and I. K. Puri, “Field measurements of soot volume fractions in laminar partially premixed coflow ethylene/air flames,” Combust. Flame 138, 362–372 (2004). [CrossRef]
  17. D. R. Snelling, K. A. Thomson, G. J. Smallwood, and O. L. Gulder, “Two-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in laminar diffusion flames,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2478–2485 (1999). [CrossRef]
  18. J. D. Maun, P. B. Sunderland, and D. L. Urban, “Thin-filament pyrometry with a digital still camera,” Appl. Opt. 46, 483–488 (2007). [CrossRef]
  19. D. Coffin, “Decoding raw digital photos in Linux,” http://www.cybercom.net/~dcoffin/dcraw/ .
  20. P. Elder, T. Jerrick, and J. W. Birkeland, “Determination of the radial profile of absorption and emission coefficients and temperature in cylindrically symmetric sources with self-absorption,” Appl. Opt. 4, 589–592 (1965). [CrossRef]
  21. S. J. Young, “Iterative Abel inversion of optically thick, cylindrically symmetric radiation sources,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 479–481 (1981). [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Wang, P. Ding, and Y. Mu, “A spline approximation of the Abel transformation for use in optically-thick, cylindrically-symmetric plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 1055–1058 (1995). [CrossRef]
  23. Z.-G. Yuan, “The filtered Abel transform and its application in combustion diagnostics,” Western States Section of the Combustion Institute, Stanford, CA, USA, October, 1995.
  24. W. H. Dalzell, G. C. Williams, and H. C. Hottel, “A light-scattering method for concentration measurements,” Combust. Flame 14, 161–169 (1970). [CrossRef]
  25. K. C. Smyth and C. R. Shaddix, “Brief communication: the elusive history of m=1.57–0.56i for the refractive index of soot,” Combust. Flame 107, 314–320 (1996). [CrossRef]
  26. S. C. Lee and C. L. Tien, “Optical constants of soot in hydrocarbon flames,” Symp. (Int.) Combust., [Proc.] 18, 1159–1166 (1981). [CrossRef]
  27. D. Liu, Q. X. Huang, F. Wang, Y. Chi, K. F. Cen, and Y. H. Yan, “Simultaneous measurement of three-dimensional soot temperature and volume fraction fields in axisymmetric or asymmetric small unconfined flames with CCD Cameras,” Trans. ASME 132, 061202 (2010). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited