OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 52, Iss. 35 — Dec. 10, 2013
  • pp: 8519–8527

Shrinkage during holographic recording in photopolymer films determined by holographic interferometry

Mohesh Moothanchery, Viswanath Bavigadda, Vincent Toal, and Izabela Naydenova  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 52, Issue 35, pp. 8519-8527 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (472 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Shrinkage of photopolymer materials is an important factor for their use in holographic data storage and for fabrication of holographic optical elements. Dimensional change in the holographic element leads to a requirement for compensation in the reading angle and/or wavelength. Normally, shrinkage is studied at the end of the polymerization process and no information about the dynamics is obtained. The aim of this study was to use holographic interferometry to measure the shrinkage that occurs during holographic recording of transmission diffraction gratings in acrylamide photopolymer layers. Shrinkage in photopolymer layers can be measured over the whole recorded area by real-time capture of holographic interferograms at regular intervals during holographic recording using a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor camera. The optical path length change, and hence the shrinkage, are determined from the captured fringe patterns. Through analysis of the real-time shrinkage curves, it is possible to distinguish two processes that determine the value of shrinkage in the photopolymer layer. These processes are ascribed to monomer polymerization and crosslinking of polymer chains. The dependence of shrinkage of the layers on the conditions of recording such as recording intensity, single or double beam exposure, and the physical properties of the layers, such as thickness, were studied. Higher shrinkage was observed with recordings at lower intensities and in thinner layers. Increased shrinkage was also observed in the case of single beam polymerization in comparison to the case of double beam holographic exposure.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(090.0090) Holography : Holography
(090.2880) Holography : Holographic interferometry
(090.7330) Holography : Volume gratings
(160.4670) Materials : Optical materials
(160.5470) Materials : Polymers
(160.5335) Materials : Photosensitive materials

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: August 28, 2013
Revised Manuscript: November 10, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: November 11, 2013
Published: December 5, 2013

Mohesh Moothanchery, Viswanath Bavigadda, Vincent Toal, and Izabela Naydenova, "Shrinkage during holographic recording in photopolymer films determined by holographic interferometry," Appl. Opt. 52, 8519-8527 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Biles, “Holographic color filters for LCDs,” Society of Information Display 94 Digest, 403–406 (1994).
  2. A. Pu and D. Psaltis, “High-density recording in photopolymer based holographic three-dimensional disks,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2389–2398 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. U. S. Rhee, H. J. Caulfield, J. Shamir, C. S. Vikram, and M. M. Mirsalehi, “Characteristics of the DuPont photopolymer for angularly multiplexed page-oriented holographic memories,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1839–1847 (1993). [CrossRef]
  4. I. Naydenova, H. Sherif, S. Mintova, S. Martin, and V. Toal, “Holographic recording in nanoparticle doped photopolymer,” Proc. SPIE 6252, 625206 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. P. Hemmer, S. Shahriar, J. Ludman, and H. J. Caulfield, “Holographic optical memories,” in Holography for the New Millennium, J. Ludman, H. J. Caulfield, and J. Riccobono, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2002), pp. 179–189.
  6. P. A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468, 80–83 (2010). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St. Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nature 451, 694–698 (2008). [CrossRef]
  8. E. Leite, Tz. Babeva, E.-P. Ng, V. Toal, S. Mintova, and I. Naydenova, “Optical properties of photopolymer layers doped with aluminophosphate nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 16767–16775 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. E. Leite, I. Naydenova, S. Mintova, L. Leclercq, and V. Toal, “Photopolymerisable nanocomposites for holographic recording and sensor application,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3652–3660 (2010). [CrossRef]
  10. I. Naydenova, R. Jallapuram, V. Toal, and S. Martin, “Characterisation of the humidity and temperature responses of a reflection hologram recorded in acrylamide-based photopolymer,” Sens. Actuators B 139, 35–38 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. I. Naydenova, R. Jallapuram, V. Toal, and S. Martin, “A visual indication of environmental humidity using a colour changing hologram recorded in a self-developing photopolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031109 (2008). [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Fuchs, O. Soppera, A. G. Mayes, and K. Haupt, “Holographic molecularly imprinted polymers for label-free chemical sensing,” Adv. Mater. 25, 566–570 (2013). [CrossRef]
  13. C. Zhao, J. Liu, Z. Fu, and R. T. Chen, “Shrinkage correction of volume phase holograms for optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 3005, 224–229 (1997). [CrossRef]
  14. T. J. Trentler, J. E. Boyd, and V. L. Colvin, “Epoxy resin-photopolymer composites for volume holography,” Chem. Mater. 12, 1431–1438 (2000). [CrossRef]
  15. N. Suzuki, Y. Tomita, and T. Kojima, “Holographic recording in TiO2 nanoparticle-dispersed methacrylate photopolymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4121–4123 (2002). [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Tomita, K. Furushima, K. Ochi, and K. Ishizu, “Organic nanoparticle (hyperbranched polymer)-dispersed photopolymers for volume holographic storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071103 (2006). [CrossRef]
  17. S. Lee, Y.-C. Jeong, Y. Heo, S. I. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and J.-K. Park, “Holographic photopolymers of organic/inorganic hybrid interpenetrating networks for reduced volume shrinkage,” J. Mater. Chem. 19, 1105–1114 (2009). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Moothanchery, S. Mintova, I. Naydenova, and V. Toal, “Si-MFI zeolite nanoparticle doped photopolymer with reduced shrinkage,” Opt. Express 19, 25786–25791 (2011). [CrossRef]
  19. M. Moothanchery, I. Naydenova, and V. Toal, “Study of the shrinkage caused by holographic grating formation in acrylamide based photopolymer film,” Opt. Express 19, 13395–13404 (2011). [CrossRef]
  20. S. Martin, C. A. Feely, and V. Toal, “Holographic recording characteristics of an acrylamide based photopolymer,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5757–5768 (1997). [CrossRef]
  21. I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. Jallapuram, R. Howard, and V. Toal, “Investigations of the diffusion processes in self-processing acrylamide-based photopolymer system,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2900–2905 (2004). [CrossRef]
  22. M. T. Manley, B. Ovryn, and L. S. Stern, “Evaluation of double-exposure holographic interferometry for biomechanical measurements in vitro,” J. Orthop. Res. 5, 144–149 (1987). [CrossRef]
  23. C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, 1979).
  24. P. K. Rastogi, ed., Holographic Interferometry: Principles and Methods (Springer Series in Optical Sciences) (Springer-Verlag, 1994).
  25. P. Hariharan, B. F. Oreb, and N. Brown, “Real-time holographic interferometry: a microcomputer system for the measurement of vector displacements,” Appl. Opt. 22, 876–880 (1983). [CrossRef]
  26. V. Bavigadda, R. Jallapuram, E. Mihaylova, and V. Toal, “Electronic speckle-pattern interferometer using holographic optical elements for vibration measurements,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3273–3275 (2010). [CrossRef]
  27. R. L. Powell and K. A. Stetson, “Interferometric vibration analysis by wavefront reconstruction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1593–1597 (1965). [CrossRef]
  28. E. B. Aleksandrov and A. M. Bonch-Bruevich, “Investigation of surface strains by the hologram technique,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 12, 258–265 (1967).
  29. A. E. Ennos, “Measurement of in plane surface strain by hologram interferometry,” J. Phys. E 1, 731–734 (1968). [CrossRef]
  30. E. Hata and Y. Tomita, “Stoichiometric thiol-to-ene ratio dependences of refractive index modulation and shrinkage of volume gratings recorded in photopolymerizable nanoparticle-polymer composites based onstep-growth polymerization,” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1113–1120 (2011). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited