OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 52, Iss. 4 — Feb. 1, 2013
  • pp: 579–599

Coherent and incoherent synthetic-aperture imaging ladars and laboratory-space experimental demonstrations [Invited]

Liren Liu  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 52, Issue 4, pp. 579-599 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1736 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



This paper reviews our studies on coherent and incoherent synthetic-aperture imaging ladars (SAILs). Using optical diffraction, a systematic theory of side-looking SAIL was mathematically formulated and the necessary conditions for assuring a correct phase history are established. Based on optical transformation and regulation of wavefront, a down-looking SAIL of two distinctive architectures was invented and the basic principle, systematic theory, design equations, and necessary conditions are presented. An incoherent spotlight-mode SAIL was proposed, and detailed mathematically. To validate the concepts, laboratory experiments were conducted. The spatially and temporally dependent laser speckles are analyzed by applying the partial coherence theorem, and proposals to reduce their effect are given. Optical antennas and their components are discussed. It is shown that for down-looking SAIL the width of the scanning strip may be greatly increased without loss of high resolution, and the influences from atmospheric turbulence and unmodeled line-of-sight motion can be automatically compensated.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(100.2000) Image processing : Digital image processing
(100.3010) Image processing : Image reconstruction techniques
(110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
(280.3640) Remote sensing and sensors : Lidar
(280.6730) Remote sensing and sensors : Synthetic aperture radar
(110.3175) Imaging systems : Interferometric imaging

ToC Category:
Remote Sensing and Sensors

Original Manuscript: August 22, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: November 26, 2012
Published: January 24, 2013

Virtual Issues
(2013) Advances in Optics and Photonics

Liren Liu, "Coherent and incoherent synthetic-aperture imaging ladars and laboratory-space experimental demonstrations [Invited]," Appl. Opt. 52, 579-599 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. Bashkansky, R. L. Lucke, E. Funk, L. J. Rickard, and J. Reintjes, “Two-dimensional synthetic aperture imaging in the optical domain,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1983–1985. (2002). [CrossRef]
  2. S. M. Beck, J. R. Buck, W. F. Buell, R. P. Dickinson, D. A. Kozlowski, N. J. Marechal, and T. J. Wright, “Synthetic-aperture imaging ladar: laboratory demonstration and signal processing,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7621–7629 (2005). [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Zhou, N. Xu, Z. Luan, A. Yan, L. Wang, J. Sun, and L. Liu, “2D imaging experiment of a 2D target in a laboratory-scale synthetic aperture imaging ladar,” Acta Opt. Sin. 29, 2030–2032 (2009). [CrossRef]
  4. L. Liu, Y. Zhou, Y. Zhi, J. Sun, Y. Wu, Z. Luan, A. Yan, L. Wang, E. Dai, and W. Lu, “A large-aperture synthetic aperture imaging ladar demonstrator and its verification in laboratory space,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 0900112 (2011). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Ricklin, M. Dierking, S. Fuhrer, B. Schumm, and D. Tomlison, “Synthetic aperture ladar for tactical imaging (SALTI) flight test results and path forward,” presented at the Coherent Laser Radar Conferences, Snowmass, Colorado, USA, 9–13 July 2007.
  6. B. Krause, J. Buck, C. Ryan, D. Hwang, P. Kondratko, A. Malm, A. Gleason, and S. Ashby, “Synthetic Aperture Ladar Flight Demonstration,” in CLEO: 2011– Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB7.
  7. R. L. Lucke, L. J. Rickard, M. Bashkansky, J. Reintjes, and E. Funk, “Synthetic aperture ladar (SAL): fundamental theory, design equations for a satellite system, and laboratory demonstration,” Naval Research Laboratory Report , 051 (2002).
  8. L. Liu, “Optical antenna of telescope for synthetic aperture ladar,” Proc. SPIE 7094, 70940F (2008).
  9. L. Liu, “Antenna aperture and imaging resolution of synthetic aperture imaging ladar,” Proc. SPIE 7468, 74680R (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. L. Liu, “Fresnel telescope full-aperture synthesized imaging ladar: principle,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 0128001 (2011).
  11. L. Liu, “Principle of down-looking synthetic aperture imaging ladar,” Acta Opt. Sin. 32, 0920002 (2012).
  12. L. Liu, “Spotlight-mode incoherently-synthetic aperture imaging ladar: fundamentals,” Proc. SPIE 7818, 78180U (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. L. Liu, “Synthetic aperture imaging ladar (VI): space-time speckle effect and heterodyne SNR,” Acta Opt. Sin. 29, 2326–2332 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. L. Liu, “Structure and operating mode of synthetic aperture imaging ladar for speckle reduction,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 1028001 (2011). [CrossRef]
  15. R. Garreis and C. Zeiss, “90° optical hybrid for coherent receivers,” Proc. SPIE 1522, 210–219 (1991). [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Zhou, L. Wang, Y. Zhi, Z. Luan, J. Sun, and L. Liu, “Polarization-splitting 2×4 90 free-space optical hybrid with phase compensation,” Acta Opt. Sin. 29, 3291–3294 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. Z. Luan, L. Liu, L. Wang, and D. Liu, “Large-optics white light interferometer for laser wavefront test: apparatus and application,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 70910Q (2008). [CrossRef]
  18. Z. Luan, L. Liu, S. Teng, and D. Liu, “Jamin double-shearing interferometer for diffraction limited wavefront test,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1819–1824 (2004). [CrossRef]
  19. L. Liu, “Quasi-interferometry with coded correlation filtering,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2817–2826 (1982). [CrossRef]
  20. A. E. Siegman, “The antenna properties of optical heterodyne receivers,” Proc. IEEE 54, 1350–1356 (1966). [CrossRef]
  21. T.-C. Poon, M. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, “Optical scanning holography,” Proc. IEEE 84, 753–764 (1996). [CrossRef]
  22. R. M. Marino, R. N. Capes, W. E. Keicher, S. R. Kulkarni, J. K. Parker, L. W. Swezey, J. R. Senning, M. F. Reiley, and E. B. Craig, “Tomographic image reconstruction from laser radar reflective projections,” Proc. SPIE 999, 248–263 (1988).
  23. A. S. Hanesa, V. N. Benhamb, J. B. Lasche, and K. B. Rowland, “Field demonstration and characterization of a 10.6 micron reflection tomography imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 4167, 230–241 (2001). [CrossRef]
  24. E. Dai, J. Sun, A. Yan, Y. Zhi, Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, and L. Liu, “Demonstration of a laboratory Fresnel telescope synthetic aperture imaging ladar,” Acta Opt. Sin. 32, 0528003 (2012). [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Yan, X. Jin, J. Sun, Y. Zhou, and L. Liu, “Research of spotlight mode incoherently synthetic aperture imaging ladar,” Acta Opt. Sin. 32, 0211003 (2012). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited