OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 52, Iss. 4 — Feb. 1, 2013
  • pp: 600–612

Half a century of optics in computing—a personal perspective [Invited]

Joseph Shamir  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 52, Issue 4, pp. 600-612 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.52.000600


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (524 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Optical signal processing and computing was triggered by the invention of the laser. Starting practically in 1960, it really took off with the introduction of the spatial-matched filter in 1964. Almost half a century later, research and engineering activity in the field continues unabated but in directions that could not have been anticipated in those early days. This paper presents an overview of the developments in the field, discussing the advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of optics in computing paradigms to indicate where and how optics can be exploited in this area. Initially, optical methods were introduced for processing analog signals. Early attempts to extend optical methods toward digital processing failed because the differences between photons and electrons were not properly appreciated. In the last part of the paper we show that some novel concepts and advanced technology may revitalize also optical processes within the digital computing world. This latter development is demonstrated by digital logic functions implemented on simple electro-optic networks. (My personal perspective on the role of optics in computing is deeply rooted in many years of collaboration with my late friend, H. John Caulfield, and I dedicate this paper to his memory.)

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(200.0200) Optics in computing : Optics in computing
(200.3760) Optics in computing : Logic-based optical processing

ToC Category:
Optics in Computing

History
Original Manuscript: September 14, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: October 7, 2012
Published: January 24, 2013

Virtual Issues
(2013) Advances in Optics and Photonics

Citation
Joseph Shamir, "Half a century of optics in computing—a personal perspective [Invited]," Appl. Opt. 52, 600-612 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-52-4-600


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), “Investigations in optics, with special reference to the spectroscope,” Philos. Mag. 8, 40–55 (1880). Reprinted in The Collection of Optics Papers of Lord Rayleigh, J. W. Strutt, ed. (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 117–130.
  2. P. Elias, D. S. Gray, and D. Z. Robinson, “Fourier treatment of optical processes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 127–134 (1952). [CrossRef]
  3. P. Elias, “Optics in communication theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 229–232 (1953). [CrossRef]
  4. L. J. Cutrona, E. N. Leith, C. J. Palermo, and L. J. Porcello, “Optical data processing and filtering systems,” IRE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-6, 386–400 (1960).
  5. A. B. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 10, 139–145 (1964). [CrossRef]
  6. H. J. Caulfield and J. Shamir, “Wave-particle duality considerations in optical computing,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2184–2186 (1989). [CrossRef]
  7. H. J. Caulfield and J. Shamir, “Wave-particle duality processors—characteristics, requirements and applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1314–1323 (1990). [CrossRef]
  8. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).
  9. J. Shamir, Optical Systems and Processes (SPIE, 1999). Reprinted by Prentice-Hall India, 2004.
  10. J. Shamir, H. J. Caulfield, and R. B. Johnson, “Massive holographic interconnection networks and their limitations,” Appl. Opt. 28, 311–324 (1989). [CrossRef]
  11. H. J. Caulfield, “Parallel N4 weighted optical interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4039–4040 (1987). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Shamir and H. J. Caulfield, “Parallel optical processors—some basic considerations,” Int. J. Opt. Comp. 2, 73–78 (1991).
  13. H.-I. Jeon, J. Shamir, R. B. Johnson, H. J. Caulfield, J. Kinser, C. Hester, and M. Temmen, “The use of fixed holograms for massively-interconnected, low-power neural networks,” in Neural Networks for Perception, H. Wechsler, ed. (Academic, 1992), Vol. 2, pp. 282–309.
  14. H. J. Caulfield and J. Shamir, “Fixed hologram neural networks,” in Real-Time Optical Information Processing, B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, eds. (Academic, 1994), pp. 255–305.
  15. J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984). [CrossRef]
  16. J. Shamir, “Paradigms for bit-oriented holographic information storage,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5212–5222 (2006). [CrossRef]
  17. H. J. Caulfield and W. T. Maloney, “Improved discrimination in optical character recognition,” Appl. Opt. 8, 2354–2356 (1969). [CrossRef]
  18. B. Braunecker, R. Hauch, and A. W. Lohmann, “Optical character recognition based on nonredundant correlation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2746–2753 (1979). [CrossRef]
  19. C. F. Hester and D. Casasent, “Multivariant technique for multiclass pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1758–1761 (1980). [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Hsu and H. Arsenault, “Optical pattern recognition using circular harmonic expansion,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4016–4019 (1982). [CrossRef]
  21. J. Rosen and J. Shamir, “Circular harmonic phase filters for efficient rotation-invariant pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2895–2899 (1988). [CrossRef]
  22. D. Casasent and D. Psaltis, “New optical transforms for pattern recognition,” Proc. IEEE 65, 77–84 (1977). [CrossRef]
  23. J. Rosen and J. Shamir, “Scale invariant pattern recognition with logarithmic radial harmonic filters,” Appl. Opt. 28, 240–244 (1989). [CrossRef]
  24. D. Casasent, “Unified synthetic discriminant function computational formulation,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1620–1627 (1984). [CrossRef]
  25. U. Mahlab and J. Shamir, “Phase-only entropy-optimized filter by simulated annealing,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1168–1170 (1989). [CrossRef]
  26. U. Mahlab and J. Shamir, “Optical pattern recognition based on convex functions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1233–1239 (1991). [CrossRef]
  27. B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, “Tutorial survey of composite filter designs for optical correlators,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4773–4801 (1992). [CrossRef]
  28. D. Gabor, “Light and information,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1964), Vol. 1, pp. 109–153.
  29. R. Piestun and J. Shamir, “Synthesis of three-dimensional light-fields and applications,” Proc. IEEE 90, 222–244 (2002). [CrossRef]
  30. J. Shamir, “Fundamental speed limitations on parallel processing,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1567–1593 (1987). [CrossRef]
  31. A. W. Lohmann and A. S. Marathay, “Globality and speed of optical parallel processors,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3838–3842 (1989). [CrossRef]
  32. J. Rosen, U. Mahlab, and J. Shamir, “Adaptive learning with joint transform correlators,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1101–1106 (1990). [CrossRef]
  33. J. Shamir, “Adaptive pattern recognition correlators,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2675–2689 (1997). [CrossRef]
  34. J. Shamir, “Iterative procedures in electro-optical pattern recognition,” in Optical Pattern Recognition, F. T. S. Yu, ed. (Cambridge University, 1998), pp. 221–261.
  35. A. Korpel, Acousto-Optics (Marcel Dekker, 1997).
  36. L. J. Cutrona, “On the application of coherent optical processing techniques to synthetic-aperture radar,” Proc. IEEE 54, 1026–1032 (1966). [CrossRef]
  37. D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, “Adaptive real-time femtosecond pulse shaping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1615–1619 (1998). [CrossRef]
  38. C.-S. Pang, K. Oba, Y. T. Mazurenko, and S. Y. Fainman, “Space-time processing with photorefractive volume holography,” Proc. IEEE 87, 2086–2097 (1999). [CrossRef]
  39. T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1168–1170 (1999). [CrossRef]
  40. P. Daukantas, “Photography in the American Civil War,” Opt. Photonics News 23(6), 24–29 (2012). [CrossRef]
  41. G. Indebetouw, “Scanning holographic microscopy with spatially incoherent sources: reconciling the holographic advantage with the sectioning advantage,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 252–258 (2009). [CrossRef]
  42. J. Shamir, “Moire gauging by projected interference fringes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 5, 78–86 (1973). [CrossRef]
  43. D. Caspi, N. Kiryati, and J. Shamir, “Range imaging with adaptive color structured sight,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 470–480 (1998). [CrossRef]
  44. H. P. Herzig, Micro-Optics (Taylor & Francis, 1997).
  45. R. Piestun, B. Spektor, and J. Shamir, “Wave fields in three dimensions: analysis and synthesis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1837–1848 (1996). [CrossRef]
  46. R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, 1991).
  47. J. Shamir, D. G. Crowe, and J. W. Beletic, “Improved compensation of atmospheric turbulence effects by multiple adaptive mirror systems,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4618–4628 (1993). [CrossRef]
  48. P. L. Wizinowich, M. Lloyd-Hart, B. A. McLeod, D. Colucci, R. G. Dekany, D. M. Wittman, J. R. P. Angel, D. W. McCarthy, W. G. Hulburd, and D. G. Sandler, “Neural network adaptive optics for the multimirror telescope,” Proc. SPIE 1542, 148–158 (1991). [CrossRef]
  49. N. H. Farhat, “Optoelectronic analogs of self programming neural nets: architecture and methodologies for implementing fast stochastic learning by simulated annealing,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5093–5103 (1987). [CrossRef]
  50. H. J. Caulfield, “Fuzzy optical metrology,” IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst. 4, 206–207 (1996). [CrossRef]
  51. D. Lyszyk and J. Shamir, “Signal processing under uncertain conditions by parallel projections onto fuzzy sets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A 16, 1602–1611 (1999). [CrossRef]
  52. R. Landauer, “Irreversibility and heat generation in the computing process,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 5, 183–191(1961). [CrossRef]
  53. C. H. Bennett, “Logical reversibility of computation,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 17, 525–532 (1973). [CrossRef]
  54. E. Fredkin and T. Toffoli, “Conservative logic,” Int. J. Theor. Phys. 21, 219–253 (1982). [CrossRef]
  55. R. P. Feynman, “Quantum mechanical computing,” Opt. News 11, 11–20 (1985). [CrossRef]
  56. J. Shamir, H. J. Caulfield, W. Miceli, and R. J. Seymour, “Optical computing and the Fredkin gate,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1604–1607 (1986). [CrossRef]
  57. J. Hardy and J. Shamir, “Optics inspired logic architecture,” Opt. Express 15, 150–165 (2007). [CrossRef]
  58. Q. Xu and R. Soref, “Reconfigurable optical directed-logic circuits using microresonator-based optical switches,” Opt. Express 19, 5244–5259 (2011). [CrossRef]
  59. L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, L. X. Jia, L. Yang, P. Zhou, Y. H. Tian, P. Chen, Y. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Jiang, Y. L. Liu, Q. Fang, and M. B. Yu, “Demonstration of directed XOR/XNOR logic gates using two cascaded microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1620–1622(2010). [CrossRef]
  60. Y. H. Tian, L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, L. Yang, P. Zhou, H. T. Chen, J. F. Ding, W. W. Zhu, Y. Y. Lu, L. X. Jia, Q. Fang, and M. B. Yu, “Proof of concept of directed OR/NOR and AND/NAND logic circuit consisting of two parallel microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1650–1652 (2011). [CrossRef]
  61. L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, Y. H. Tian, L. Yang, P. Zhou, Y. Y. Lu, W. W. Zhu, Y. L. Liu, X. L. Jia, Q. Fang, and M. B. Yu, “Simultaneous implementation of XOR and XNOR operations using a directed logic circuit based on two microring resonators,” Opt. Express 19, 6524–6540 (2011). [CrossRef]
  62. S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Miliou, E. E. Kriezis, and N. Pleros, “A 320  Gb/s-throughput capable 2×2 silicon-plasmonic router architecture for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 3185–3195 (2011). [CrossRef]
  63. J. Shamir and H. J. Caulfield, “High-efficiency rapidly programmable optical interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1032–1037 (1987). [CrossRef]
  64. J. Shamir, “Three-dimensional optical interconnection gate array,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3455–3457 (1987). [CrossRef]
  65. M. M. Mirsalehi, J. Shamir, and H. J. Caulfield, “Residue arithmetic processing utilizing optical Fredkin gate arrays,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3940–3946 (1987). [CrossRef]
  66. J. Shamir, “Parallel optical logic operations on reversible networks,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited