OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 52, Iss. 7 — Mar. 1, 2013
  • pp: C43–C49

Performance quantification of a millimeter-wavelength imaging system based on inexpensive glow-discharge-detector focal-plane array

Moshe Shilemay, Daniel Rozban, Assaf Levanon, Yitzhak Yitzhaky, Natan S. Kopeika, Orly Yadid-Pecht, and Amir Abramovich  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 52, Issue 7, pp. C43-C49 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (608 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Inexpensive millimeter-wavelength (MMW) optical digital imaging raises a challenge of evaluating the imaging performance and image quality because of the large electromagnetic wavelengths and pixel sensor sizes, which are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude larger than those of ordinary thermal or visual imaging systems, and also because of the noisiness of the inexpensive glow discharge detectors that compose the focal-plane array. This study quantifies the performances of this MMW imaging system. Its point-spread function and modulation transfer function were investigated. The experimental results and the analysis indicate that the image quality of this MMW imaging system is limited mostly by the noise, and the blur is dominated by the pixel sensor size. Therefore, the MMW image might be improved by oversampling, given that noise reduction is achieved. Demonstration of MMW image improvement through oversampling is presented.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.1240) Detectors : Arrays
(110.4100) Imaging systems : Modulation transfer function
(040.2235) Detectors : Far infrared or terahertz
(110.6795) Imaging systems : Terahertz imaging

Original Manuscript: September 13, 2012
Revised Manuscript: December 23, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: December 28, 2012
Published: February 7, 2013

Moshe Shilemay, Daniel Rozban, Assaf Levanon, Yitzhak Yitzhaky, Natan S. Kopeika, Orly Yadid-Pecht, and Amir Abramovich, "Performance quantification of a millimeter-wavelength imaging system based on inexpensive glow-discharge-detector focal-plane array," Appl. Opt. 52, C43-C49 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, D. Rozban, and E. Farber, “Inexpensive detector for terahertz imaging,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7207–7211 (2007). [CrossRef]
  2. F. Sizov, “THz radiation sensors,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 18, 10–36 (2010). [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Lampert and A. D. White, “Microwave techniques for studying discharges in gases,” Electron. Commun. 30, 124–128 (1953).
  4. B. J. Udelson, “Effect of microwave signals incident upon different regions of a dc hydrogen glow discharge,” J. Appl. Phys. 28, 380–381 (1957). [CrossRef]
  5. P. J. W. Severin and A. G. Van Nie, “A simple and rugged wide-band gas discharge detector for millimeter waves,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 14, 431–436 (1966). [CrossRef]
  6. N. H. Farhat, “Optimization of millimeter wave glow discharge detectors,” Proc. IEEE 62, 279–281 (1974). [CrossRef]
  7. N. S. Kopeika, “On the mechanism of glow discharge detection of microwave and millimeter wave radiation,” Proc. IEEE 63, 981–982 (1975). [CrossRef]
  8. N. S. Kopeika, “Glow discharge detection of long wavelength electromagnetic radiation: cascade ionization process internal signal gain and temporal and spectral response properties,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 6, 139–157 (1978). [CrossRef]
  9. G. D. Lobov, “Gas discharge detector of microwave oscillations,” Radiotekh. Eleektron. 5, 152–165 (1960).
  10. D. Rozban, N. S. Kopeika, A. Abramovich, and E. Farber, “Terahertz detection mechanism of inexpensive sensitive glow discharge detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093306 (2008). [CrossRef]
  11. A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and D. Rozban, “THz polarization effects on detection responsivity of glow discharge detectors (GDD),” IEEE Sensors J. 9, 1181–1184 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and D. Rozban, “Design of diffraction limited focal plane arrays for mm wavelength and terahertz radiation using glow discharge detector pixels,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033302 (2008). [CrossRef]
  13. N. S. Kopeika, A. Abramovich, O. Yadid-Pecht, H. Joseph, A. Akram, A. Belenky, and S. Lineykin, “First operation of 8X8 glow discharge detector VLSI focal plane array towards mm wave and THz radiation video rate imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7485, 74850K (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. L. Hou, H. Park, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave imaging system based on glow discharge detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 177–182 (2011). [CrossRef]
  15. L. Hou and W. Shi, “Fast terahertz continuous-wave detector based on weakly ionized plasma,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 1583–1585 (2012). [CrossRef]
  16. H. Joseph, N. S. Kopeika, A. Abramovich, A. Akram, A. Levanon, and D. Rozban, “Heterodyne detection by miniature neon indicator lamp glow discharge detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11, 1879–1884 (2011). [CrossRef]
  17. N. S. Kopeika, A System Engineering Approach to Imaging (SPIE, 1998).
  18. J. A. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1969).
  19. T. W. Crowe, J. L. Hesler, R. M. Weikle, and S. H. Jones, “GaAs devices and circuits for terahertz applications,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 175–189 (1999). [CrossRef]
  20. J. A. Murphy and R. Padman, “Phase centers of horn antennas using Gaussian mode analysis,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 38, 1306–1310 (1990). [CrossRef]
  21. P. F. Goldsmith, “Quasi optical technique at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths,” in Infrared and Millimeter Waves, K. Button, ed. (Academic, 1982), Chap. 5, Vol. 6, pp. 277–343.
  22. D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Akram, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using miniature neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11, 1962–1968 (2011). [CrossRef]
  23. A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, D. Rozban, A. Levanon, M. Shilemay, A. Akram, H. Joseph, O. Yadid-Pecht, and A. Belenky, “Super resolution and optical properties of THz double row array based on inexpensive glow discharge detector (GDD) pixels,” Proc. SPIE 8188–8189, 81880A (2011). [CrossRef]
  24. A. Levanon, A. Akram, N. S. Kopeika, A. Abramovich, D. Rozban, Y. Yitzhaky, H. Joseph, A. Belenky, M. Gefen, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Oversampling advances in mm wave and THz radiation imaging using inexpensive Ne indicator lamp detectors,” Opt. Eng. (to be published).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited