A comprehensive analysis of fundamental factors and their effects on the performance of liquid crystal (LC)-based lenses is given. The analysis adopts numerical LC director and electric field simulation, as well as scalar diffraction theory for calculating the lens performance considering different variable factors. A high-efficiency LC lens with concentric electrode rings is fabricated for verifying and enriching the analysis. The measurement results are in close agreement with the analysis, and a summary of key factors is given with their quantitative contributions to the efficiency.
© 2013 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: December 10, 2012
Revised Manuscript: February 8, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: February 11, 2013
Published: March 20, 2013
Liwei Li, Doug Bryant, Tony van Heugten, and Philip J. Bos, "Physical limitations and fundamental factors affecting performance of liquid crystal tunable lenses with concentric electrode rings," Appl. Opt. 52, 1978-1986 (2013)