OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 53, Iss. 11 — Apr. 10, 2014
  • pp: 2523–2531

Analysis of optical properties in injection-molded and compression-molded optical lenses

Chung Yen Wang and Pei Jen Wang  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 53, Issue 11, pp. 2523-2531 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.53.002523


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (980 KB) Open Access





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Numerical mold-flow simulations and experimental measurements for injection-molded lenses have been investigated in form accuracy on a two-cavity mold with various process conditions. First, form profiles of the molded lenses have been measured together with the corresponding simulated mold-temperature distribution and displacement distribution of the lens in the z direction. A flow-through type layout of cooling channels has been devised for balance of mold-temperature distribution in mold cavities with various parametric distances for assessments in uniformity of temperature distribution. Finally, a compression-molding process is proposed for the post-process of birefringence relaxation as well as adequate form accuracy of lenses. In conclusion, optimization of process parameters to achieve good form accuracy in a multicavity mold with symmetric geometry but nonuniform cooling conditions is difficult. A good design of cooling channels plus optimized process conditions could provide uniform mold-temperature distribution so that molded lenses of good quality would be possible. Then, the profile deviation of lenses could be further compensated by profile geometry corrections. In conclusion, the post-compression-molding process could make birefringence-free plastic lenses with good form accuracy.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(080.0080) Geometric optics : Geometric optics
(220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication
(230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

History
Original Manuscript: January 13, 2014
Revised Manuscript: March 4, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: March 5, 2014
Published: April 10, 2014

Citation
Chung Yen Wang and Pei Jen Wang, "Analysis of optical properties in injection-molded and compression-molded optical lenses," Appl. Opt. 53, 2523-2531 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-53-11-2523


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. Y. Maekawa, M. Onishi, A. Ando, S. Matsushima, and F. Lai, “Prediction of birefringence in plastics optical elements using 3D CAE for injection molding,” Proc. SPIE 3944, 935–943 (2000). [CrossRef]
  2. H. E. Lai and P. J. Wang, “Study of process parameters on optical properties for injection molded lenses,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2017–2027 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. K. M. Tsai, “Effect of injection molding process parameters on optical properties of lenses,” Appl. Opt. 49, 6149–6159 (2010). [CrossRef]
  4. J. W. Dally and W. F. Riley, Experimental Stress Analysis (McGraw-Hill, 1991).
  5. Y. B. Lee, T. H. Kwon, and K. Yoon, “Numerical prediction of residual stresses and birefringence in injection/compression molded center-gated disk. Part I: basic modeling and results for injection molding,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 42, 2246–2272 (2002). [CrossRef]
  6. G. D. Shyu, A. I. Isayyev, and H. S. Lee, “Numerical simulation of flow-induced birefringence in injection molded disk,” Japan Korea Plast Process Jt. Semin. 4, 41–47 (2003).
  7. B. Fan, D. O. Kazmer, W. C. Bushko, R. P. Theriault, and A. J. Poslinski, “Birefringence prediction of optical media,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 44, 814–824 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. M. C. Huang and C. C. Tai, “The effective factors in the warpage problem of an injection-molded part with a thin shell feature,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 110, 1–9 (2001). [CrossRef]
  9. S. J. Liao, D. Y. Chang, H. J. Chen, L. S. Tsou, J. R. Ho, H. T. Yau, W. H. Hsieh, J. T. Wang, and Y. C. Su, “Optimal process conditions of shrinkage and warpage of thin-wall parts,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 44, 917–928 (2004). [CrossRef]
  10. S. H. Tang, Y. J. Tan, S. M. Sapuan, S. Sulaiman, N. Ismail, and R. Samin, “The use of Taguchi method in the design of plastic injection mould for reducing warpage,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 182, 418–426 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. E. Bociaga, T. Jaruga, K. Lubczynska, and A. Gnatowski, “Warpage of injection moulded parts as the result of mould temperature difference,” Arch. Mat. Sci. Eng. 44, 28–34 (2010).
  12. Z. Shayfull, M. F. Ghazali, M. Azaman, S. M. Nasir, and N. A. Faris, “Effect of differences core and cavity temperature on injection molded part and reducing the warpage by Taguchi method,” Int. J. Eng. Technol. 10, 125–132 (2010).
  13. R. Sánchez, J. Aisa, A. Martinez, and D. Mercado, “On the relationship between cooling setup and warpage in injection molding,” Measurement 45, 1051–1056 (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. A. I. Isayyev, Injection and Compression Molding Fundamentals (Dekker, 1987).
  15. G. C. Firestone, A. Jain, and A. Y. Yi, “Precision laboratory apparatus for high temperature compression molding of glass lenses,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063101 (2005). [CrossRef]
  16. A. Y. Yi and A. Jain, “Compression molding of aspherical glass lenses-A combined experimental and numerical analysis,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 579–586 (2005). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Y. Yi, C. Huang, F. Klocke, C. Brecher, G. Pongs, M. Winterschladen, A. Demmer, S. Lange, T. Bergs, M. Merz, and F. Niehaus, “Development of a compression molding process for three-dimensional tailored free-form glass optics,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6511–6518 (2006). [CrossRef]
  18. C. Y. Wang, Y. H. Sun, Y. C. Cheng, and P. J. Wang, “A birefringence-free compression molding process for optical plastics lenses,” in 68th Conference of the Society of Plastics Engineers (2010), pp. 1372–1375.
  19. A. F. Mills, Basic Heat and Mass Transfer (Prentice Hall, 1999).
  20. K. M. B. Jansen, R. Pantani, and G. Titomanlio, “As-molded shrinkage measurements on polystyrene injection molded products,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 38, 254–264 (1998). [CrossRef]
  21. J. Antony and F. J. Antony, “Teaching the Taguchi method to industrial engineers,” Work Study 50, 141–149 (2001).
  22. A. Bendell, J. Disney, and W. A. Pridmore, “Taguchi methods: applications in world industry,” Interfaces 21, 99–101 (1991).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited