OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 53, Iss. 12 — Apr. 20, 2014
  • pp: 2556–2561

Multilevel anisotropic diffractive optical elements fabricated by means of stepping photo-alignment technique using photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystals

Kohei Noda, Kotaro Kawai, Tomoyuki Sasaki, Nobuhiro Kawatsuki, and Hiroshi Ono  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 53, Issue 12, pp. 2556-2561 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (547 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Multilevel anisotropic diffractive optical elements (DOEs), in which digitized spatial patterns of optical birefringence are fabricated by means of stepping photoalignment technique, has been demonstrated using photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystals (PCLCs). The polarization state of incident light is converted into a different polarization state by diffracting light in the practical, i.e., transparent in visible region and thermally stable, multilevel anisotropic DOEs, and both polarization azimuth and ellipticity can be widely controlled by their birefringence patterns. Theoretical considerations for such polarization conversion were also performed using the Jones calculus and diffraction theory and well-explained experimental observations.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.3710) Materials : Liquid crystals
(160.4670) Materials : Optical materials
(260.1440) Physical optics : Birefringence
(260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: January 22, 2014
Revised Manuscript: March 13, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: March 13, 2014
Published: April 14, 2014

Kohei Noda, Kotaro Kawai, Tomoyuki Sasaki, Nobuhiro Kawatsuki, and Hiroshi Ono, "Multilevel anisotropic diffractive optical elements fabricated by means of stepping photo-alignment technique using photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystals," Appl. Opt. 53, 2556-2561 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. B. Kress and P. Meyrueis, Digital Diffractive Optics (Wiley, 2000).
  2. S. Beretta and M. Cairoli, “Design of multilevel thin-film phase gratings with optimized diffraction efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 16, 684–686 (1991). [CrossRef]
  3. E. N. Glytsis and T. K. Gaylord, “High-spatial-frequency binary and multilevel stairstep gratings: polarization-selective mirrors and broadband antireflection surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4459–4470 (1992). [CrossRef]
  4. P. Szwaykowski and V. Arrizon, “Talbot array illuminator with multilevel phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1109–1114 (1993). [CrossRef]
  5. S. Liu and Y. Chen, “Multilevel binary phase grating polarization device with a birefringent substrate,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1832–1834 (1995). [CrossRef]
  6. F.-J. Ko, C.-K. Wu, H.-J. King, S.-Y. Wu, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Improving the quality of liquid-crystal projection image by multilevel diffractive grating technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4117–4121 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Oliva, D. Michaelis, T. Benkenstein, J. Dunkel, T. Harzendorf, A. Matthes, and U. D. Zeitner, “Highly efficient three-level blazed grating in the resonance domain,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2774–2776 (2010). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Oliva, T. Harzendorf, D. Michaelis, U. D. Zeitner, and A. Tünnermann, “Multilevel blazed gratings in resonance domain: an alternative to the classical fabrication approach,” Opt. Express 19, 14735–14745 (2011). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Fratz, D. M. Giel, and P. Fischer, “Digital polarization holograms with defined magnitude and orientation of each pixel’s birefringence,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1270–1272 (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Fratz, S. Sinzinger, and D. Giel, “Design and fabrication of polarization-holographic elements for laser beam shaping,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2669–2677 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. V. P. Shibaev and S. G. Kostromin, Polymers as Electroactive and Photooptical Media (Springer, 1996).
  12. K. Ichimura, “Photoalignment liquid-crystal systems,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1847–1874 (2000). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev. 102, 4139–4176 (2002). [CrossRef]
  14. N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawakami, and T. Yamamoto, “Reversion of alignment direction in the thermally enhanced photoorientation of photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystal films,” Macromolecules 35, 706–713 (2002). [CrossRef]
  15. N. Kawatsuki and H. Ono, “Photoinduced reorientation of photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystals and applications to highly functionalized optical devices,” in Hand book of Organic Electronics and Photonics, M. S. A. Adbel Mottaleb and H. S. Nalwa, eds. (American Scientific Publishers, 2008), Chap. 20.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited