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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 53, Iss. 12 — Apr. 20, 2014
  • pp: 2562–2582

Wafer-based aberration metrology for lithographic systems using overlay measurements on targets imaged from phase-shift gratings

Sven van Haver, Wim M. J. Coene, Koen D’havé, Niels Geypen, Paul van Adrichem, Laurens de Winter, Augustus J. E. M. Janssen, and Shaunee Cheng  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 53, Issue 12, pp. 2562-2582 (2014)

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In this paper, a new methodology is presented to derive the aberration state of a lithographic projection system from wafer metrology data. For this purpose, new types of phase-shift gratings (PSGs) are introduced, with special features that give rise to a simple linear relation between the PSG image displacement and the phase aberration function of the imaging system. By using the PSGs as the top grating in a diffraction-based overlay stack, their displacement can be measured as an overlay error using a standard wafer metrology tool. In this way, the overlay error can be used as a measurand based on which the phase aberration function in the exit pupil of the lithographic system can be reconstructed. In practice, the overlay error is measured for a set of different PSG targets, after which this information serves as input to a least-squares optimization problem that, upon solving, provides estimates for the Zernike coefficients describing the aberration state of the lithographic system. In addition to a detailed method description, this paper also deals with the additional complications that arise when the method is implemented experimentally and this leads to a number of model refinements and a required calibration step. Finally, the overall performance of the method is assessed through a number of experiments in which the aberration state of the lithographic system is intentionally detuned and subsequently estimated by the new method. These experiments show a remarkably good agreement, with an error smaller than 5mλ, among the requested aberrations, the aberrations measured by the on-tool aberration sensor, and the results of the new wafer-based method.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.0050) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction and gratings
(100.5070) Image processing : Phase retrieval
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
(220.1010) Optical design and fabrication : Aberrations (global)
(220.3740) Optical design and fabrication : Lithography

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

Original Manuscript: January 10, 2014
Revised Manuscript: February 28, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: March 1, 2014
Published: April 15, 2014

Sven van Haver, Wim M. J. Coene, Koen D’havé, Niels Geypen, Paul van Adrichem, Laurens de Winter, Augustus J. E. M. Janssen, and Shaunee Cheng, "Wafer-based aberration metrology for lithographic systems using overlay measurements on targets imaged from phase-shift gratings," Appl. Opt. 53, 2562-2582 (2014)

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