OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 53, Iss. 14 — May. 10, 2014
  • pp: 3110–3118

Investigation of pitch and angle in the gradual-triangle lenticular lens for point-blank LED fog lamp

Hsi-Chao Chen and Chi-Hao Yang  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 53, Issue 14, pp. 3110-3118 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1618 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The effects of different pitch and angle of gradual-triangle lenticular lens for the point-blank LED fog lamp were investigated under the standard of ECE R19. The novel LED fog lamp was assembled from a point-blank LED light source, a parabolic reflector, and a gradual-triangle lenticular lens. Light tracing analysis was used for the design of the gradual-triangle lenticular lens. The pitch, which varied from 1 to 6 mm, and the apex angle, which changed from 5 to 32 deg, were both investigated in regard to the gradual-triangle lenticular lens. The optimum pitch was 5 mm, and the efficiency of the lamp system and lenticular lens could reach 93% and 98.1% by simulation, respectively. The results of experiment had over 94%, which is similar to that of simulation by normalized cross correlation (NCC) for the light intensity.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(080.2740) Geometric optics : Geometric optical design
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
(220.2945) Optical design and fabrication : Illumination design

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

Original Manuscript: March 12, 2014
Revised Manuscript: April 9, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: April 11, 2014
Published: May 9, 2014

Hsi-Chao Chen and Chi-Hao Yang, "Investigation of pitch and angle in the gradual-triangle lenticular lens for point-blank LED fog lamp," Appl. Opt. 53, 3110-3118 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Y. Tsao, “Solid-state lighting: lamps, chips and materials for tomorrow,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 20, 28–37 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. M. Liu, B. Rong, and H. W. M. Salemink, “Evaluation of LED application in general lighting,” Opt. Eng. 46, 074002 (2007). [CrossRef]
  3. A. Zukauskas, Introduction to Solid-State Lighting (Wiley, 2002).
  4. E. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University, 2003).
  5. S. Muthu, F. J. P. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green and blue LEDs for white light illumination,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 333–338 (2002). [CrossRef]
  6. D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002). [CrossRef]
  7. L. Zhang, X. Guo, T. Liang, X. Gu, Q. M. Lin, and G. Shen, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of tri-chromatic and tetra-chromatic LED-based white LEDs,” J. Microelectron. 38, 1–6 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. H. Ries, I. Leike, and J. Muschaweck, “Mixing colored LED sources,” Proc. SPIE 5186, 27–32 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. I. Moreno and U. Contreras, “Color distribution from multicolor LED arrays,” Opt. Express 15, 3607–3618 (2007). [CrossRef]
  10. H. C. Chen, J. Y. Lin, and H. Y. Chiu, “Rectangular illumination using a secondary optics with cylindrical lens for LED street light,” Opt. Express 21, 3201–3212 (2013). [CrossRef]
  11. I. Moreno, M. A. Alejo, R. W. J. Cassarly, S. R. David, D. G. Jenkins, A. P. Riser, and T. L. Davenport, “Automated design of a uniform distribution using faceted reflectors,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1830–1839 (2000). [CrossRef]
  12. H. C. Chen, J. Y. Lin, C. H. Yang, and Y. X. Lu, “Effects of radiation characteristic and luminous efficiency for LED lampshade with cylindrical lens,” Proc. SPIE 7784, 778411 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. UNECE, “Uniform provisions concerning the approval of power-driven vehicle front fog lamps,” ECE, 2December2013.
  14. H. C. Chen and G. Y. Wu, “Investigation of irradiance efficiency for LED phototherapy with different arrays,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4882–4886 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. J. Jiang, S. To, W. B. Lee, and B. Cheung, “Optical design of a freeform TIR lens for LED streetlight,” Optik 122, 358–363 (2011). [CrossRef]
  16. L. Sun, S. Z. Jin, and S. Y. Cen, “Free-form microlens for illumination applications,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5520–5527 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Luo, Z. Feng, Y. Han, and H. Li, “Design of compact and smooth free-form optical system with uniform illuminance for LED source,” Opt. Express 18, 9055–9063 (2010). [CrossRef]
  18. R. E. Fischer, B. Tadic-Galeb, and P. R. Yoder, Optical System Design (SPIE, 2008).
  19. C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, S. H. Ma, Y. L. Lee, and S. M. Huang, “Precise optical modeling for LED lighting verified by cross correlation in the midfield region,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2193–2195 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. I. Moreno, M. Avendaño-Alejo, and R. I. Tzonchev, “Designing light-emitting diode arrays for uniform near-field irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2265–2272 (2006). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited