OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 53, Iss. 18 — Jun. 20, 2014
  • pp: 3854–3865

Long-range polarimetric imaging through fog

Julien Fade, Swapnesh Panigrahi, Anthony Carré, Ludovic Frein, Cyril Hamel, Fabien Bretenaker, Hema Ramachandran, and Mehdi Alouini  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 53, Issue 18, pp. 3854-3865 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1194 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We report an experimental implementation of long-range polarimetric imaging through fog over kilometric distance in real field atmospheric conditions. An incoherent polarized light source settled on a telecommunication tower is imaged at a distance of 1.3 km with a snapshot polarimetric camera including a birefringent Wollaston prism, allowing simultaneous acquisition of two images along orthogonal polarization directions. From a large number of acquisitions datasets and under various environmental conditions (clear sky/fog/haze, day/night), we compare the efficiency of using polarized light for source contrast increase with different signal representations (intensity, polarimetric difference, polarimetric contrast, etc.). With the limited-dynamics detector used, a maximum fourfold increase in contrast was demonstrated under bright background illumination using polarimetric difference image.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.4280) Imaging systems : Noise in imaging systems
(110.0113) Imaging systems : Imaging through turbid media
(110.5405) Imaging systems : Polarimetric imaging
(010.7295) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Visibility and imaging

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

Original Manuscript: March 6, 2014
Revised Manuscript: May 6, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: May 7, 2014
Published: June 13, 2014

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 8 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Julien Fade, Swapnesh Panigrahi, Anthony Carré, Ludovic Frein, Cyril Hamel, Fabien Bretenaker, Hema Ramachandran, and Mehdi Alouini, "Long-range polarimetric imaging through fog," Appl. Opt. 53, 3854-3865 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, S. Svanberg, and O. Jarlman, “Time-resolved transillumination for medical diagnostics,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1179–1181 (1990). [CrossRef]
  2. N. Zeng, X. Jiang, Q. Gao, Y. He, and H. Ma, “Linear polarization difference imaging and its potential applications,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6734–6739 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. M. Dubreuil, P. Delrot, I. Leonard, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, and A. Dogariu, “Exploring underwater target detection by imaging polarimetry and correlation techniques,” Appl. Opt. 52, 997–1005 (2013). [CrossRef]
  4. W. R. Watkins, D. H. Tofsted, V. G. CuQlock-Knopp, J. B. Jordan, and J. O. Merritt, “Navigation through fog using stereoscopic active imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4023, 20–28 (2000). [CrossRef]
  5. L. Wang, P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-d imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991). [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Z. Wang, X. Liang, L. Wang, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, “Fourier spatial filter acts as a temporal gate for light propagating through a turbid medium,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1498–1500 (1995). [CrossRef]
  7. E. Leith, B. Hoover, S. Grannell, K. Mills, H. Chen, and D. Dilworth, “Realization of time gating by use of spatial filtering,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1370–1376 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Oleary, D. Boas, B. Chance, and A. Yodh, “Refraction of diffuse photon density waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2658–2661 (1992). [CrossRef]
  9. L. Mullen, A. Laux, B. Concannon, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, and A. S. Prikhach, “Amplitude-modulated laser imager,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3874–3892 (2004). [CrossRef]
  10. E. Lacot, R. Day, and F. Stoeckel, “Laser optical feedback tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 744–746 (1999). [CrossRef]
  11. E. Belin and V. Boucher, “An imaging system based on laser optical feedback for fog vision applications,” Proc. SPIE 7088, 70880N (2008). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Schmitt, A. Gandjbakhche, and R. Bonner, “Use of polarized light to discriminate short-path photons in a multiply scattering medium,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6535–6546 (1992). [CrossRef]
  13. H. Horinaka, K. Hashimoto, K. Wada, Y. Cho, and M. Osawa, “Extraction of quasi-straightforward-propagating photons from diffused light transmitting through a scattering medium by polarization modulation,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1501–1503 (1995). [CrossRef]
  14. O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, and A. Floch, “Rotating polarization imaging in turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1706–1708 (1996). [CrossRef]
  15. H. Ramachandran and A. Narayanan, “Two-dimensional imaging through turbid media using a continuous wave light source,” Opt. Commun. 154, 255–260 (1998). [CrossRef]
  16. S. Mujumdar and H. Ramachandran, “Imaging through turbid media using polarization modulation: dependence on scattering anisotropy,” Opt. Commun. 241, 1–9 (2004). [CrossRef]
  17. J. S. Ryan and A. I. Carswell, “Laser beam broadening and depolarization in dense fogs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 900–908 (1978). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Xu and R. Alfano, “Circular polarization memory of light,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 065601 (2005).
  19. R. Nothdurft and G. Yao, “Applying the polarization memory effect in polarization-gated subsurface imaging,” Opt. Express 14, 4656–4661 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. J. A. Garland, “Some fog droplet size distributions obtained by an impaction method,” Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 97, 483–494 (1971). [CrossRef]
  21. M. Hayman, S. Spuler, B. Morley, and J. VanAndel, “Polarization lidar operation for measuring backscatter phase matrices of oriented scatterers,” Opt. Express 20, 29553–29567 (2012). [CrossRef]
  22. S. Demos and R. Alfano, “Optical polarization imaging,” Appl. Opt. 36, 150–155 (1997). [CrossRef]
  23. P. Terrier, V. Devlaminck, and J. Charbois, “Segmentation of rough surfaces using a polarization imaging system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 423–430 (2008). [CrossRef]
  24. O. Morel, C. Stolz, F. Meriaudeau, and P. Gorria, “Active lighting applied to three-dimensional reconstruction of specular metallic surfaces by polarization imaging,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4062–4068 (2006). [CrossRef]
  25. M. Yamada, K. Ueda, I. Horiba, and N. Sugie, “Discrimination of the road condition toward understanding of vehicle driving environments,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 2, 26–31 (2001). [CrossRef]
  26. A. Bénière, M. Alouini, F. Goudail, and D. Dolfi, “Design and experimental validation of a snapshot polarization contrast imager,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5764–5773 (2009). [CrossRef]
  27. H. Luo, K. Oka, D. Edward, M. Kudenov, J. Schiewgerling, and E. Dereniak, “Compact and miniature snapshot imaging polarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4413–4417 (2008). [CrossRef]
  28. M. W. Kudenov, M. J. Escuti, N. Hagen, E. L. Dereniak, and K. Oka, “Snapshot imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter using polarization gratings,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1367–1369 (2012). [CrossRef]
  29. S. Alali, T. Yang, and I. Vitkin, “Rapid time-gated polarimetric Stokes imaging using photoelastic modulators,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2997–3000 (2013). [CrossRef]
  30. V. Gruev, R. Perkins, and T. York, “CCD polarization imaging sensor with aluminum nanowire optical filters,” Opt. Express 18, 19087–19094 (2010). [CrossRef]
  31. M. C. Simon, “Wollaston prism with large split angle,” Appl. Opt. 25, 369–376 (1986). [CrossRef]
  32. D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. Martinez, and J. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994). [CrossRef]
  33. M. Alouini, F. Goudail, N. Roux, L. Le Hors, P. Hartemann, S. Breugnot, and D. Dolfi, “Active spectro-polarimetric imaging: signature modeling, imaging demonstrator and target detection,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 129–139 (2008). [CrossRef]
  34. A. Bénière, F. Goudail, D. Dolfi, and M. Alouini, “Target detection in active polarization images perturbed with additive noise and illumination nonuniformity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1678–1686 (2009). [CrossRef]
  35. J. Fade, S. Panigrahi, and M. Alouini, “Optimal estimation in polarimetric imaging in the presence of correlated noise fluctuations,” Opt. Express 22, 4920–4931 (2014). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited