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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 53, Iss. 19 — Jul. 1, 2014
  • pp: 4100–4116

Optimizing three-frequency Na, Fe, and He lidars for measurements of wind, temperature, and species density and the vertical fluxes of heat and constituents

Chester S. Gardner and Fabio A. Vargas  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 53, Issue 19, pp. 4100-4116 (2014)

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The measurement accuracies of three-frequency resonance fluorescence Doppler lidars are limited by photon noise and uncertainties in the laser frequency and line width. We analyze the performance of Na, Fe, and He lidars using a new technique, which incorporates precise information about the absorption spectrum of the species and the pulse spectrum of the lasers. We derive the measurement errors associated with photon noise, laser frequency errors, and laser line width errors. Optimizing the lidar design, based upon the measurement requirements, can improve system performance by reducing the required integration times, enabling measurements to be made in less time or at higher altitudes where the densities and signal levels are smaller. The optimum frequency shift for observing heat and constituent transport velocities is 689 MHz (580 MHz) at night (day) for Na lidars and 774 MHz (597 MHz) for Fe lidars. The optimum frequency shift for observing winds, temperature, and He densities is 3.66 GHz (3.16 GHz) at night (day) for He lidars.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.0010) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric and oceanic optics
(010.3640) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Lidar
(030.5260) Coherence and statistical optics : Photon counting
(290.1310) Scattering : Atmospheric scattering
(280.4788) Remote sensing and sensors : Optical sensing and sensors
(010.0280) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Remote sensing and sensors

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

Original Manuscript: March 12, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: May 7, 2014
Published: June 23, 2014

Chester S. Gardner and Fabio A. Vargas, "Optimizing three-frequency Na, Fe, and He lidars for measurements of wind, temperature, and species density and the vertical fluxes of heat and constituents," Appl. Opt. 53, 4100-4116 (2014)

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