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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 53, Iss. 4 — Feb. 1, 2014
  • pp: A205–A211

Reactive ion-assisted deposition of e-beam evaporated titanium for high refractive index TiO2 layers and laser damage resistant, broad bandwidth, high-reflection coatings

John Bellum, Ella Field, Damon Kletecka, and Finis Long  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 53, Issue 4, pp. A205-A211 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.53.00A205


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Abstract

High-reflection coatings with broad bandwidth can be achieved by pairing a low refractive index material, such as SiO2, with a high refractive index material, such as TiO2. To achieve high refractive index, low absorption TiO2 films, we optimized the reactive, ion-assisted deposition process (O2 levels, deposition rate, and ion beam settings) using e-beam evaporated Ti. TiO2 high-index layers were then paired with SiO2 low-index layers in a quarter-wave-type coating to achieve a broader high-reflection bandwidth compared to the same coating composed of HfO2/SiO2 layer pairs. However, the improved bandwidth exhibited by the TiO2/SiO2 coating is associated with lower laser damage threshold. To improve the laser damage resistance of the TiO2/SiO2 coating, we also created four coatings where HfO2 replaced some of the outer TiO2 layers. We present the laser damage results of these coatings to understand the trade-offs between good laser damage resistance and high-reflection bandwidth using TiO2 and HfO2.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.0140) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers and laser optics
(220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication
(310.0310) Thin films : Thin films

History
Original Manuscript: September 4, 2013
Revised Manuscript: November 13, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: November 13, 2013
Published: December 23, 2013

Citation
John Bellum, Ella Field, Damon Kletecka, and Finis Long, "Reactive ion-assisted deposition of e-beam evaporated titanium for high refractive index TiO2 layers and laser damage resistant, broad bandwidth, high-reflection coatings," Appl. Opt. 53, A205-A211 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-53-4-A205


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References

  1. J. Bellum, P. Rambo, J. Schwarz, I. Smith, M. Kimmel, D. Kletecka, and B. Atherton, “Production of optical coatings resistant to damage by petawatt class laser pulses,” in Lasers—Applications in Science and Industry, K. Jakubczak, ed. (InTech, 2011), pp. 23–52.
  2. M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 115109 (2005).
  3. H. Selhofer, E. Ritter, and R. Linsbod, “Properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by reactive electron-beam evaporation from various starting materials,” Appl. Opt. 41, 756–762 (2002). [CrossRef]
  4. K. N. Rao, “Influence of deposition parameters on optical properties of TiO2 films,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2357–2364 (2002). [CrossRef]
  5. C. J. Stolz and F. Y. Genin, “Laser resistant coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, N. B. Kaiser and H. K. Pulker, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 309–333.
  6. “Determination of laser-damage threshold of optical surfaces. Part 1: 1-on-1 test,” ISO Standard 11254-1 (International Organization for Standardization, 2000).
  7. “Small optics laser damage test procedure,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2005).

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