OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 53, Iss. 7 — Mar. 1, 2014
  • pp: 1315–1321

Low scatter and ultra-low reflectivity measured in a fused silica window

Cinthia Padilla, Peter Fritschel, Fabian Magaña-Sandoval, Erik Muniz, Joshua R. Smith, and Liyuan Zhang  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 53, Issue 7, pp. 1315-1321 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.53.001315


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1106 KB) | SpotlightSpotlight on Optics





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We investigate the reflectivity and optical scattering characteristics at 1064 nm of an antireflection coated fused silica window of the type being used in the Advanced LIGO gravitational-wave detectors. Reflectivity is measured in the ultra-low range of 5–10 ppm (by vendor) and 14–30 ppm (by us). Using an angle-resolved scatterometer we measure the sample’s bidirectional scattering distribution function (BSDF) and use this to estimate its transmitted and reflected scatter at roughly 20–40 and 1 ppm, respectively, over the range of angles measured. We further inspect the sample’s low backscatter using an imaging scatterometer, measuring an angle resolved BSDF below 106sr1 for large angles (10°–80° from incidence in the plane of the beam). We use the associated images to (partially) isolate scatter from different regions of the sample and find that scattering from the bulk fused silica is on par with backscatter from the antireflection coated optical surfaces. To confirm that the bulk scattering is caused by Rayleigh scattering, we perform a separate experiment measuring the scattering intensity versus input polarization angle. We estimate that 0.9–1.3 ppm of the backscatter can be accounted for by Rayleigh scattering of the bulk fused silica. These results indicate that modern antireflection coatings have low enough scatter to not limit the total backscattering of thick fused silica optics.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
(120.5820) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Scattering measurements
(310.1210) Thin films : Antireflection coatings
(290.1483) Scattering : BSDF, BRDF, and BTDF

ToC Category:
Scattering

History
Original Manuscript: December 5, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: January 8, 2014
Published: February 24, 2014

Virtual Issues
May 22, 2014 Spotlight on Optics

Citation
Cinthia Padilla, Peter Fritschel, Fabian Magaña-Sandoval, Erik Muniz, Joshua R. Smith, and Liyuan Zhang, "Low scatter and ultra-low reflectivity measured in a fused silica window," Appl. Opt. 53, 1315-1321 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-53-7-1315


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. N. L. Thomas, “Low-scatter, low-loss mirrors for laser gyros,” Proc. SPIE 157, 41–49 (1978). [CrossRef]
  2. S. Chao, W. L. Lim, and J. A. Hammond, “Lock-in growth in a ring laser gyro,” in Physics of Optical Ring Gyros (SPIE, 1984), Vol. 487, pp. 50–57.
  3. G. M. Harry, T. P. Bodiya, and R. DeSalvo, eds. Optical Coatings and Thermal Noise in Precision Measurement (Cambridge, 2012).
  4. The VIRGO Collaboration, “The VIRGO large mirrors: a challenge for low loss coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S935–S945 (2004).
  5. D. T. Wei, “Ion beam interference coating for ultralow optical loss,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2813–2816 (1989). [CrossRef]
  6. S. E. Watkins, J. P. Black, and B. J. Pond, “Optical scatter characteristics of high-reflectance dielectric coatings and fused-silica substrates,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5511–5518 (1993). [CrossRef]
  7. B. Cimma, D. Forest, P. Ganau, B. Lagrange, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, J. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Pignard, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Ion beam sputtering coatings on large substrates: toward an improvement of the mechanical and optical performances,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1436–1439 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. G. Rempe, R. J. Thompson, H. J. Kimble, and R. Lalezari, “Measurement of ultralow losses in an optical interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 17, 363–365 (1992). [CrossRef]
  9. F. Magaña-Sandoval, R. X. Adhikari, V. Frolov, J. Harms, J. Lee, S. Sankar, P. R. Saulson, and J. R. Smith, “Large-angle scattered light measurements for quantum-noise filter cavity design studies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 1722–1727 (2012). [CrossRef]
  10. T. R. Reynolds, “Ion beam assisted deposition of ophthalmic lens coatings,” U.S. patent application2011/0229659 A1 (22September2011).
  11. D. J. Aiken, “Antireflection coating design for series interconnected multi-junction solar cells,” in Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 8, p. 563570.
  12. M. Victoria, C. Dominguez, I. Anton, and G. Sala, “Antireflective coatings for multijunction solar cells under wide-angle ray bundles,” Opt. Express 20, 8136–8147 (2012). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, K. McKenzie, S. Chua, B. C. Buchler, T. Symul, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, “An investigation of doubly-resonant optical parametric oscillators and nonlinear crystals for squeezing,” J. Phys. B 44, 015502 (2011). [CrossRef]
  14. D. C. Massey, “Spacelab optical viewport glass assembly optical test program for the starlab mission,” Proc. SPIE 1164, 236 (1989). [CrossRef]
  15. G. M. Harry, for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “Advanced LIGO: the next generation of gravitational wave detectors,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 084006 (2010).
  16. Advanced Virgo Baseline Design, The Virgo Collaboration, note VIR027A09 May16, 2009 https://tds.ego-gw.it/itf/tds/file.php?callFile=VIR-0027A-09.pdf .
  17. K. Somiya, for the KAGRA collaboration, “Detector configuration of KAGRA the Japanese cryogenic gravitational-wave detector,” Classical Quantum Gravity 29, 124007 (2012).
  18. B. Willke, “The GEO-HF project,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S207–S214 (2006).
  19. J. Aasi, and the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “Enhanced sensitivity of the LIGO gravitational wave detector by using squeezed states of light,” Nat. Photonics 7, 613–619 (2013). [CrossRef]
  20. J. Abadie, and the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “A gravitational wave observatory operating beyond the quantum shot-noise limit,” Nat. Phys. 7, 962–965 (2011). [CrossRef]
  21. D. Ottaway, P. Fritschel, and S. Waldman, “Impact of upconverted scattered light on advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Opt. Express 20, 8329–8336 (2012). [CrossRef]
  22. H. Luck, Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics and University of Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany (Personal communication, 2013).
  23. J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering, 3rd ed. (SPIE, 2012).
  24. X. Chen, L. Ju, R. Flaminio, H. Lück, C. Zhao, and D. G. Blair, “Rayleigh scattering in fused silica samples for gravitational wave detectors,” Opt. Commun., 284, 4732–4737 (2011). [CrossRef]
  25. E. Brinkmeyer and W. Eickhoff, “Ultimate limit of polarization holding in single-mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 19, 996–997 (1983). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited