The theoretical background and present status of formulas for the refractive index of air are reviewed. In supplement to Edlén’s recently revised formula for relative refractivity, the density dependence of refractive index is reanalyzed. New formulas are presented for both phase and group refractive index which are more useful over a wide range of pressure, temperature, and composition than any presently available. The application of the new formulas to optical distance measuring is briefly discussed.
James C. Owens, "Optical Refractive Index of Air: Dependence on Pressure, Temperature and Composition," Appl. Opt. 6, 51-59 (1967)