The limitations imposed by atmospheric turbulence in the design of optical surveillance systems with slant optical paths are developed. Image blurring effects which determine scene contrast ratio are separated from spot dancing effectswhich determine signal-to-noise ratio. The relative position of each turbulent eddy with respect to scene and observer is considered. The effects of turbulence in ground-to-ground, air-to-ground, and ground-to-air optical surveillance systems are compared.
Melvin M. Weiner, "Atmospheric Turbulence in Optical Surveillance Systems," Appl. Opt. 6, 1984-1991 (1967)