It is shown that the phase fluctuations introduced into a light wave which has propagated through a slab of atmosphere may be determined by measuring the fluctuations in resistance of a wire stretched approximately along the optical path. This technique is applied to measure structure functions of the phase fluctuations across a wavefront by recording fluctuations in the difference between the resistances of two parallel wires.
D. N. B. Hall, "The Measurement of Optical Seeing by a Resistance Analog," Appl. Opt. 6, 1992-1994 (1967)