Turbulent eddies in high pressure microsecond spark channels in helium were photographed by means of a 20-nsec Kerr cell shutter. Current densities exceeded 106 A/cm2. It was shown that turbulences are initiated from plasma jets originating at the electrodes. The cathode jet is explained by Compton’s accommodation theory as extended by Haynes. The observed anode shock wave appears to be the result of a dynamic magnetic pinch.
Heinz Fischer and Karlheinz Schönbach, "Turbulent Eddies in High Density Spark Channels in Helium," Appl. Opt. 7, 311-314 (1968)