A laminar flow burner is described that provides several advantages in atomic absorption flame photometry. Included in its design is a heated spray chamber followed by a condensing system. This combination improves the concentration level of the analyte in the flame and keeps solvent concentration low. Therefore, sensitivities are significantly improved for most elements relative to cold chamber burners. The burner also contains several safety features. These various design features are discussed in detail, and performance data are given on (a) signal size, (b) signal-to-noise ratio, (c) linearity, (d) working range, (e) precision, and (g) accuracy.
A. Hell, W. F. Ulrich, N. Shifrin, and J. Ramírez-Muñoz, "Laminar Flow Burner System with Infrared Heated Spray Chamber and Condenser," Appl. Opt. 7, 1317-1323 (1968)