A mathematical model is developed which predicts the probability of ocular damage occurring to personnel illuminated by a pulsed laser beam as a function of the appropriate optical and atmospheric parameters. The evaluation includes terms for the laser output energy and divergence, and atmospheric parameters of attenuation and scintillation. Sample computations are shown, and a safety nomograph is developed to facilitate the eye hazard analysis.
Paul H. Deitz, "Probability Analysis of Ocular Damage due to Laser Radiation Through the Atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 8, 371-375 (1969)